Download and read online Biology and Breeding of Food Legumes in PDF and EPUB Food legumes are important constituents of the human diet and animal feed where they are crucial to a balanced diet, supplying high quality proteins. These crops also play an important role in low-input agricultural production systems by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Despite systematic and continuous breeding efforts through conventional methods, substantial genetic gains have not been achieved. With the rise in demand for food legumes/pulses and increased market value of these crops, research has focused on increasing production and improving the quality of pulses for both edible and industria.
Download and read online Legumes under Environmental Stress in PDF and EPUB Leguminous crops have been found to contribute almost 27% of the world’s primary crop production. However, due to environmental fluctuations, legumes are often exposed to different environmental stresses, leading to problems with growth and development, and ultimately, decreased yield. This timely review explains the transcriptomics, proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, transgenomics, functional genomics and phenomics of a wide range of different leguminous crops under biotic and abiotic stresses, and their genetic and molecular responses. Amongst others the text describes the effect of nutrient deficiency, pesticides, salt, and temperature stress on legumes. Importantly, the book explores the physiobiochemical, molecular and omic approaches that are used to overcome biotic and abiotic constraints in legumes. It looks at the exogenous application of phytoprotectants; the role of nutrients in the alleviation of abiotic stress; and the microbial strategy for the improvement of legume production under hostile environments. Key features: demonstrates how to mitigate the negative effect of stress on leguminous crops, and how to improve the yield under stress the most up-to-date research in the field written by an international team of active researchers and practitioners across academia, industry and non-profit organisations This volume is a valuable and much-needed resource for scientists, professionals and researchers working in plant science, breeding, food security, crop improvement and agriculture worldwide. In universities it will educate postgraduate and graduate students in plant science and agriculture; it will also benefit those in scientific institutions and in biotech and agribusiness companies, who deal with agronomy and environment.
Download and read online Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants Volume 1 in PDF and EPUB Genetic engineering and biotechnology along with conventional breeding have played an important role in developing superior cultivars by transferring economically important traits from distant, wild and even unrelated species to the cultivated varieties which otherwise could not have been possible with conventional breeding. There is a vast amount of literature pertaining to the genetic improvement of crops over last few decades. However, the wonderful results achieved by crop scientists in food legumes’ research and development over the years are scattered in different journals of the World. The two volumes in the series ‘Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants’ address this issue and offer a comprehensive reference on the developments made in major food crops of the world. These volumes aim at bringing the contributions from globally renowned scientists at one platform in a reader-friendly manner. The 1st volume entitled, ‘Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants: Innovations, Methods and Risk Assessment” will deal exclusively with the process and methodology. The contents of this volume have been designed to appraise the readers with all the theoretical and practical aspects of wide hybridization and gene transfer like processes and methods of gene transfer, role of biotechnology with special reference to embryo rescue, genetic transformation, protoplast fusion and molecular marker technology, problems such as cross incompatibility and barriers to distant hybridization and solutions to overcome them. Since wild and weedy relatives of crop plants may have negative traits associated with them, there are always possibilities of linkage drag while transferring alien alleles. Therefore, problems and limitations of alien gene transfer from these species will also be discussed in this series. Further, the associated risks with this and assessment of risks will also be given due weightage.
Download and read online Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants Volume 2 in PDF and EPUB Genetic engineering and biotechnology along with conventional breeding have played an important role in developing superior cultivars by transferring economically important traits from distant, wild and even unrelated species to the cultivated varieties which otherwise could not have been possible with conventional breeding. There is a vast amount of literature pertaining to the genetic improvement of crops over last few decades. However, the wonderful results achieved by crop scientists in food legumes’ research and development over the years are scattered in different journals of the World. The two volumes in the series ‘Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants’ address this issue and offer a comprehensive reference on the developments made in major food crops of the world. These volumes aim at bringing the contributions from globally renowned scientists at one platform in a reader-friendly manner. The second volume entitled, “Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants: Achievements and Impact” will deal more with the practical aspects. This volume will cover achievements of alien gene transfer in major food crops of the world and their impact on development of newer genetic variability and additional avenues for selection; development of superior cultivars for increased yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, improved nutritional and industrial quality; innovation of new techniques and positive as well as negative environmental implications. This volume has been divided into four groups with an aim to cover all major cereals, pulses, oilseeds and other crops (vegetable and horticultural crops) which are of economic importance.
Download and read online Expanding the Production and Use of Cool Season Food Legumes in PDF and EPUB The goal of the Second International Food Legume Research Conference held in Cairo, Egypt was to build on the success of the first conference held nearly 6 years earlier at Spokane, Washington, USA. It was at that first conference where the decision was made to hold the second Conference in Egypt and so near the ancestral home of these food legume crops. It has been a long held view that the cool season food legumes had their origin in the Mediterranean basin and the Near-east arc, and there is little doubt that food legumes were a staple food of the ancient Egyptian civilization. The cool season food legumes have the reputation for producing at least some yield under adverse conditions of poor fertility and limited moisture, i. e. , in circumstances where other crops are likely to fail completely. Yields of cool season food legumes are particularly poor in those regions where they are most important to local populations. The influx of more profitable crops such as wheat, maize, and soybeans have gradually relegated the food legumes to marginal areas with poor fertility and limited water which exposes them to even greater degrees of stress. In the past two decades, production of food legumes has declined in most of the developing countries while at the same time it has expanded greatly in Canada, Australia, and most notably in Turkey.
Download and read online Grain Legumes in PDF and EPUB This book is devoted to grain legumes and include eight chapters devoted to the breeding of specific grain legume crops and five general chapters dealing with important topics which are common to most of the species in focus. Soybean is not included in the book as it is commonly considered an oil crop more than a grain legume and is included in the Oil Crops Volume of the Handbook of Plant Breeding.Legume species belong to the Fabaceae family and are characterized by their fruit, usually called pod. Several species of this family were domesticated by humans, such as soybean, common bean, faba bean, pea, chickpea, lentil, peanut, or cowpea. Some of these species are of great relevance as human and animal food. Food legumes are consumed either by their immature pod or their dry seeds, which have a high protein content. Globally, grain legumes are the most relevant source of plant protein, especially in many countries of Africa and Latin America, but there are some constraints in their production, such as a poor adaptation, pest and diseases and unstable yield. Current research trends in Legumes are focused on new methodologies involving genetic and omic studies, as well as new approaches to the genetic improvement of these species, including the relationships with their symbiotic rhizobia.
Download and read online World crops Cool season food legumes in PDF and EPUB The genesis of the International Food Legume Research Conference (IFLRC) can be traced back to 1983 - and so this Volume, the Proceedings of that Conference, has had a gestation period of close to five years. Professor Norman Simmonds, the perennial Book Review Editor of Experimental Agriculture, has expressed the opinion (vol. 22, p. 201, 1986) that "Many symposial volumes are just plain awful!" Elsewhere (Nature vol. 312, pp. 201-2, 1984), Anthony Watkinson - then a Commissioning Editor at Oxford University Press has described several reasons which have led him to believe that "Conference proceedings - symposia - are generally disliked . . . . To put it mildly, this type of publication has a bad name". The problems, from an author's perspective, of contributing to any many-authored publication are aired in an exchange of correspondence in Biologist (vol. 30, pp. 123 and 180, 1983; and vol. 31, pp. 3 and 69,1984). And from the editor's viewpoint, D. J. Weatherall - then Nuffield Professor of Clinical Medicine at the University of Oxford - has described (Nature vol. 317, p.
Download and read online Phenomics in Crop Plants Trends Options and Limitations in PDF and EPUB Identification of desirable genotypes with traits of interest is discernible for making genetic improvement of crop plants. In this direction, screening of a large number of germplasm for desirable traits and transfer of identified traits into agronomic backgrounds through recombination breeding is the common breeding approach. Although visual screening is easier for qualitative traits, its use is not much effective for quantitative traits and also for those, which are difficult to score visually. Therefore, it is imperative to phenotype the germplasm accessions and breeding materials precisely using high throughput phenomics tools for challenging and complex traits under natural, controlled and harsh environmental conditions. Realizing the importance of phenotyping data towards identification and utilization of a germplasm as donors, global scientific community has exerted increased focus on advancing phenomics in crop plants leading to development of a number of techniques and methodologies for screening of agronomic, physiological, and biochemical traits. These technologies have now become much advanced and entered the era of digital science. This book provides exhaustive information on various aspects related to phenotyping of crop plants and offers a most comprehensive reference on the developments made in traditional and high throughput phenotyping of agricultural crops.
Download and read online Genetics Genomics and Breeding of Cool Season Grain Legumes in PDF and EPUB Cool season grain legumes including pea, faba bean, lentil, chickpea, and grass pea are extensively grown in many parts of the world. They are a primary source of proteins in human diet. This volume deals with the most recent advances in genetics, genomics, and breeding of these crops. The "state of the art" for the individual crops differs; however, their phylogenetic proximity justifies the utility of the knowledge available in one crop for speeding up research and improvement in other crops. The first five chapters are devoted individually to the five crops, followed by four chapters presenting comprehensive reviews on recent advances in the fields of functional genomics, comparative genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, and transgenesis as well as three general chapters on nitrogen fixation, broomrapes, and future prospects. This book contains information useful not only to the scientists and scholars working on the cool season grain legumes but also to those working on other legume species.
Download and read online Biology and Breeding for Resistance to Arthropods and Pathogens in Agricultural Plants in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online The Role of Legumes in the Farming Systems of the Mediterranean Areas in PDF and EPUB Legumes are an important source of protein for humans and animals. They provide nutritionally rich crop residues for animal feed, and playa key role in maintaining the productivity of soils particularly through biological nitro gen fixation. They are, therefore, of immense value in rainfed farming systems. The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) has a responsibility for research on food, pasture, and forage legumes. The Center also has the broad objective of improving livestock production in rainfed farming systems. Although food legumes have be~n known and grown by farmers in the WANA region for a long time, their productivity has remained low and variable. Forage legumes, on the other hand, are not so well known by farmers of the region, and their role in the farming systems is not so well understood. Thus, we need to develop the concept of using forage legumes as crops and to fit them into cropping systems. In its efforts to increase the productivity of food legumes and develop the legume-based crop/livestock systems, ICARDA has established a network of scientists in the different National Agricultural Research Systems in the region. To further strengthen this network, ICARDA convened a workshop on 'The Role of Legumes in the Farming Systems of Mediterranean Areas' in Tunis, Tunisia, 20-24 June 1988. This workshop was co-sponsored by UNDP, who also contributed funds for this publication.
Download and read online Food Legumes in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Greenhouses and Shelter Structures for Tropical Regions in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Commentaries in Plant Science in PDF and EPUB Commentaries in Plant Science, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that reviews developments in the pure and applied science of plants. One paper discusses the role of supercooling in the winter survival mechanism of and ecological distribution of many plant communities. Another paper evaluates the Cholodny-Went theory of shoot geotropism that there is strong evidence in auxin redistribution occurring in a rapid manner to cause geotropic curvature. The magnitude of auxin redistribution is too rare to cause differential growth. Some insect pests have specific nutritional requirements and well-developed mechanisms for selecting their plant host. One paper enumerates the benefits of using insect-resistant host plant varieties, such as the non-incurrence of extra costs, these are environmentally safe, and are compatible with most other methods of pest control. Another paper discusses the nature and possible genetic manipulation of a complex bacteria, the actinomycetes, as well as its role as antibiotic producer. Another paper examines the nature of seed storage proteins and of the cellular processes that are related in their synthesis and deposition especially in cereals and legume. This collection is suitable for botanists, genecologists, taxonomists, biologists, and investigators whose works involve cell membrane research.
Download and read online Breeding for stress tolerance in cool season food legumes in PDF and EPUB ICARDA International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas Address: P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria Telex: 331206 ICARDA SY, 331208 ICARDA SY Fax: 963-21-213490 Established in 1977, ICARDA is governed by an independent Board of Trustees. Based at Aleppo, Syria, it is one of 18 centres supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), which is an international group of representatives of donor agencies, eminent agricultural scientists, and institutional administrators from developed and developing countries who guide and support its work. The CGIAR seeks to enhance and sustain food production and, at the same time, improve the socioeconomic conditions of people through strengthening national research systems in developing countries. ICARDA focuses its research efforts on areas with a dry summer, where precipitation in winter ranges from 200 mm to 600 mm. The Center has a global responsibility for the improvement of barley, lentil and faba bean, and a regional responsibility - in West Asia and North Africa - for the improvement of wheat, chickpea and pasture and forage crops and the associated farming systems. Much of ICARDA's research is carried out on a 948-hectare farm at its headquarters at Tel Hadya, about 35 km south-west of Aleppo. ICARDA also manages other sites where it tests material under a variety of agroecological conditions in Syria and Lebanon. However, the full scope of ICARDA's activities can be appreciated only when account is taken of the cooperative research carried out with many countries in West Asia and North Africa. The results of research are transferred through ICARDA'S cooperation with national and regional research institutions, universities and ministries of agriculture, and through the technical assistance and training that the Center provides. A range of training programmes is offered, extending from residential courses for groups to advanced research opportunities for individuals. These efforts are supported by seminars and publications and by specialised information services.