Download and read online Communicating Risks and Benefits in PDF and EPUB Effective risk communication is essential to the well-being of any organization and those people who depend on it. Ineffective communication can cost lives, money and reputations. Communicating Risks and Benefits: An Evidence-Based User’s Guide provides the scientific foundations for effective communications. The book authoritatively summarizes the relevant research, draws out its implications for communication design, and provides practical ways to evaluate and improve communications for any decision involving risks and benefits. Topics include the communication of quantitative information and warnings, the roles of emotion and the news media, the effects of age and literacy, and tests of how well communications meet the organization’s goals. The guide will help users in any organization, with any budget, to make the science of their communications as sound as the science that they are communicating.
Download and read online Communicating Risks to the Public in PDF and EPUB Risk communication: the evolution of attempts Risk communication is at once a very new and a very old field of interest. Risk analysis, as Krimsky and Plough (1988:2) point out, dates back at least to the Babylonians in 3200 BC. Cultures have traditionally utilized a host of mecha nisms for anticipating, responding to, and communicating about hazards - as in food avoidance, taboos, stigma of persons and places, myths, migration, etc. Throughout history, trade between places has necessitated labelling of containers to indicate their contents. Seals at sites of the ninth century BC Harappan civilization of South Asia record the owner and/or contents of the containers (Hadden, 1986:3). The Pure Food and Drug Act, the first labelling law with national scope in the United States, was passed in 1906. Common law covering the workplace in a number of countries has traditionally required that employers notify workers about significant dangers that they encounter on the job, an obligation formally extended to chronic hazards in the OSHA's Hazard Communication regulation of 1983 in the United States. In this sense, risk communication is probably the oldest way of risk manage ment. However, it is only until recently that risk communication has attracted the attention of regulators as an explicit alternative to the by now more common and formal approaches of standard setting, insuring etc. (Baram, 1982).
Download and read online Risk Communication And Health Psychology in PDF and EPUB This is the first book to clearly assess the increasingly important area of communication of risk in the health sector. We are moving away from the days when paternalistic doctors managed healthcare without involving patients in decision making. With the current emphasis on patient empowerment and shared decision making, patients want and need reliable, comprehensive and understandable information about their conditions and treatment. In order to make informed decisions, the people concerned must understand the risks and benefits associated with possible treatments. But the challenge for health professionals is how best to communicate this complex medical information to diverse audiences.
Download and read online Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty in the Assessment of Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceutical Products in PDF and EPUB Despite the extensive body of evidence that informs regulatory decisions on pharmaceutical products, significant uncertainties persist, including the underlying variability in human biology, factors associated with the chemistry of a drug, and limitations in the research and clinical trial process itself that might limit the generalizability of results. As a result, regulatory reviewers are consistently required to draw conclusions about a drug's safety and efficacy from imperfect data. Efforts are underway within the drug development community to enhance the evaluation and communication of the benefits and risks associated with pharmaceutical products, aimed at increasing the predictability, transparency, and efficiency of pharmaceutical regulatory decision making. Effectively communicating regulatory decisions necessarily includes explanation of the impact of uncertainty on decision making. On February 12 and May 12, 2014, the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation held public workshops to advance the development of more systematic and structured approaches to characterize and communicate the sources of uncertainty in the assessment of benefits and risks, and to consider their implications for pharmaceutical regulatory decisions. Workshop presentations and discussions on February 12 were convened to explore the science of identifying and characterizing uncertainty in scientific evidence and approaches to translate uncertainties into decisions that reflect the values of stakeholders. The May 12 workshop presentations and discussions explored tools and approaches to communicating about scientific uncertainties to a range of stakeholders in the drug development process. Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty in the Assessment of Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceutical Products summarizes the presentation and discussion of both events. This report explores potential analytical and communication approaches and identifies key considerations on their development, evaluation, and incorporation into pharmaceutical benefit- risk assessment throughout the entire drug development lifecycle.
Download and read online Understanding the Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceuticals in PDF and EPUB All pharmaceutical products have inherent risks, and their use involves trade-offs between their therapeutic benefits and their risks. However, the public has a limited understanding of the benefits and risks of drugs, and many individuals believe that drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) carry no risks. The FDA is responsible for evaluating and balancing the potential risks of drugs with their potential benefits. Assessing, managing, and communicating the benefit-risk profile of a pharmaceutical product is a complex and nuanced scientific, political, and sociological challenge. Once the assessment is made, the FDA is then responsible for managing how to communicate these risks and make healthcare decisions based on them. To explore these issues, the Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation conducted a public workshop entitled Understanding the Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceuticals, with the broad goals of gaining a better understanding of the current system used to evaluate benefit and risk, and to identify opportunities for improvement. This workshop was held in Washington, D.C., on May 30-31, 2006. The benefit-risk profiles of pharmaceuticals are constantly evolving as new data are collected throughout the life cycle of a drug. Discussions during the workshop focused on the following: (1) premarket assessment, during which clinical trial data are used to assess benefit and risk; (2) communication of that information to prescribing physicians and their patients; (3) healthcare decisions made by prescribing physicians and their patients; and (4) the accumulation of benefit-risk information from postmarketing experience, which feeds back into the other phases. Understanding the Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceuticals: Workshop Summary explains in detail the discussions during this workshop.
Download and read online The Perception and Management of Drug Safety Risks in PDF and EPUB In the past two decades public debate about the risks, benefits, and safety associated with drugs has intensified. Public disputes over risks are brought to court when individuals seek compensation for health problems attributed to a pharmaceutical product. The issue reaches legislatures and regulatory agencies when consumer advocates seek to influence the standards of drug usage. Front-page news tends to focus on accidents or other risk events with drugs. Drug risk and drug safety have become an important political issue. Drug regulat ory agencies have been instituted, and their responsibility has increased. The approval to market a drug is dependent on a set of sophisticated studies executed according to strict protocols and scientifically defined criteria. Drug surveillance activities have gained recognition, and reporting systems to identify drug safety problems have been strengthened. The understanding and management of drug safety is, nonetheless, beset by doubts, disagreements, and disputes. Conflict occurs over the significance of risk, the adequacy of evidence, the methodologies used to evaluate and measure risk, the standards that guide regulation, and the optimal means of communicating risk information to the public.
Download and read online Risk Communication and Health Psychology in PDF and EPUB "...this text...will become a reference for years to come." Health Expectations This is the first book to clearly assess the increasingly important area of communication of risk in the health sector. We are moving away from the days when paternalistic doctors managed healthcare without involving patients in decision making. With the current emphasis on patient empowerment and shared decision making, patients want and need reliable, comprehensive and understandable information about their conditions and treatment. In order to make informed decisions, the people concerned must understand the risks and benefits associated with possible treatments. But the challenge for health professionals is how best to communicate this complex medical information to diverse audiences.The book examines: Risk: defining and explaining how the term is used by different disciplines, how its meanings have changed over time and how the general public understand it Health communication and the effects on health behaviours Effective risk communication to individuals and the wider public Effectiveness of patient information leaflets, and strategies for improving oral and written health communications The cognitive and emotional issues at stake for patients in understanding risk and health information The use of new technologies in risk and health communication Ethical issues, and the future of risk communication Using examples from disciplines including psychology, sociology, health, medicine, pharmacy, statistics and business and management, this book is key reading for students who need to understand the effect of risk in health psychology as well as for health professionals interested in doctor-patient communication, informed consent and patient welfare.
Download and read online Interpreting Health Benefits and Risks in PDF and EPUB This timely guide to communication in patient-centered medicine argues for greater clarity in explaining health risks versus benefits of an array of screening tests, procedures, and drug regimens. It reviews the growing trend toward patients' involvement in their own care, particularly in terms of chronic conditions, and details approaches physicians can use to prepare patients (and themselves) for collaborative decision-making based on informed choices and clear, meaningful knowledge. Chapters apply this lens to a wide range of common interventions as contentious as estrogen replacement therapy and antibiotics, and as widely prescribed as the daily aspirin and the annual physical. With this goal in mind, the authors also introduce an innovative decision-making tool that translates risks and benefits into a clear graphic format for fewer chances of miscommunication or misunderstanding. Among the topics covered: Involving the patient in decision making. Towards a universal decision aid. BRCT: the Benefit/Risk Characterization Theater. Breast Cancer Screening—Mammograms. Prostate Cancer Screening. Colon cancer screening with colonoscopy. Screening for and treating dementia. Statins, cholesterol, and coronary heart disease. Physicians in family and internal medicine will find Interpreting Health Benefits and Risks: A Practical Guide to Facilitate Doctor- Patient Communication a valuable resource for communicating with patients and new possibilities for working toward their better health and health education. This book considers several common and important situations where faulty decision-making makes overtreatment a serious risk. Clear, fair, referenced, and useful information is provided. And a powerful intuitive technique is introduced which allows patient and doctor to talk as equals as they work together in the exam room. The authors emphasize that some patients who have been fully educated will still accept high risks of harm for a small chance of avoiding premature death. But as this book is accepted and its ideas and technique are extended, I feel sure that net harm to patients will be curtailed. And what is more, the integrity of the decision-making process will be improved. —Thomas Finucane, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Download and read online Ethics in Public Relations in PDF and EPUB Ethics in Public Relations: Responsible Advocacy is the first book to identify universal principles of responsible advocacy in public relations. In this engaging book, editors Kathy Fitzpatrick and Carolyn Bronstein bring together prominent authorities in the field to address theoretic and practical issues that illustrate the broad scope and complexity of responsible advocacy in 21st-century public relations.
Download and read online Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics in PDF and EPUB Now in its fifth edition, this best-selling, multidisciplinary textbook continues to draw on the skills of pharmacists and clinicians to present optimal drug regimens. The authors integrate an understanding of the disease processes with an appreciation of pathophysiological processes, clinical pharmacy and the evidence base. New to this edition: Stronger emphasis on understanding both the prescribing process and the clinical pharmacy process. All chapters completely revised and updated. Thirty-eight leading new authors. Features: Key points boxes at the beginning of every chapter Case study tests at the end of every chapter Chapters co-authored by pharmacists and clinicians Organised by body system Consistent, clearly signposted chapter layout ‘...a unique and valuable support for all those involved or interested in drug therapy. This is a textbook that no university or pharmacy department, particularly those with employees studying at any level, and no pharmacist trying to develop their knowledge base should be without." Dr Chris Green and John Sexton, The Pharmaceutical Journal Now in its fifth edition, this best-selling, multidisciplinary textbook continues to draw on the skills of pharmacists and clinicians to present optimal drug regimens. The authors integrate an understanding of the disease processes with an appreciation of pathophysiological processes, clinical pharmacy and the evidence base. New to this edition: Stronger emphasis on understanding both the prescribing process and the clinical pharmacy process. All chapters completely revised and updated. Thirty-eight leading new authors. Features: Key points boxes at the beginning of every chapter Case study tests at the end of every chapter Chapters co-authored by pharmacists and clinicians Organised by body system Consistent, clearly signposted chapter layout ‘...a unique and valuable support for all those involved or interested in drug therapy. This is a textbook that no university or pharmacy department, particularly those with employees studying at any level, and no pharmacist trying to develop their knowledge base should be without." Dr Chris Green and John Sexton, The Pharmaceutical Journal Stronger emphasis on understanding both the prescribing process and the clinical pharmacy process. All chapters completely revised and updated. Thirty-eight leading new authors.
Download and read online Communicating Clearly about Science and Medicine in PDF and EPUB Scientific communication is challenging. The subject matter is complex and often requires a certain level of knowledge to understand it correctly; describing hazard ratios, interpreting Kaplan Meier curves and explaining confounding factors is different from talking about a new car or clothing range. Processes, for example in clinical trials, are laborious and tedious and knowing how much of the detail to include and exclude requires judgement. Conclusions are rarely clear cut making communicating statistical risk and probability tough, especially to non-statisticians and non-scientists such as journalists. Communicating Clearly about Science and Medicine looks at these and many more challenges, then introduces powerful techniques for overcoming them. It will help you develop and deliver impactful presentations on medical and scientific data and tell a clear, compelling story based on your research findings. It will show you how to develop clear messages and themes, while adhering to the advice attributed to Einstein: 'Make things as simple as possible...but no simpler.' John Clare illustrates how to communicate clearly the risks and benefits contained in a complex data set, and balance the hope and the hype. He explains how to avoid the 'miracle cure' or 'killer drug' headlines which are so common and teaches you how to combine the accuracy of peer-to-peer reviewed science with the narrative skills of journalism.
Download and read online Communicating Health Risks to the Public in PDF and EPUB This book reviews current health risk communication strategies, and examines and assesses the technical and psycho-sociological tools available to support risk communication plans. It brings together approaches to risk communication from a number of countries and describes the techniques, including drama, storytelling and scenarios that are used to identify and prioritise key communication issues, and to identify policy responses. The book also provides a review of the methods and tools available for risk assessment, risk communication and priority setting, which are relevant not only to practitioners but to health planning more generally, and to many other areas of public health and policy. The discussion of these techniques is supported by case studies, and is concluded by a chapter reflecting on the conceptual and research issues that still need to be addressed. It also proposes new directions for risk communication that key into the public imagination with the aim of gaining their trust and confidence in the risk messages. Communicating Health Risks to the Public: A Global Perspective brings together a wide variety of perspectives on risk communication, from the perspectives of health, anthropology, psychology, and media. It should be of interest not only to those involved in risk assessment or communication but to anyone interested in the role of science and the media in the political process.
Download and read online Communicating the Benefits and Risks of Prescription Drugs in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online The Routledge Handbook of Health Communication in PDF and EPUB The Routledge Handbook of Health Communication brings together the current body of scholarly work in health communication. With its expansive scope, it offers an introduction for those new to this area, summarizes work for those already learned in the area, and suggests avenues for future research on the relationships between communicative processes and health/health care delivery. This second edition of the Handbook has been organized to reflect the goals of health communication: understanding to make informed decisions and to promote formal and informal systems of care linked to health and well-being. It emphasizes work in such areas as barriers to disclosure in family conversations and medical interactions, access to popular media and advertising, and individual searches online for information and support to guide decisions and behaviors with health consequences. This edition also adds an overview of methods used in health communication and the unique challenges facing health communication researchers applying traditional methods to efforts to gain reliable and valid evidence about the role of communication for health. It introduces the promise of translational research being conducted by health communication researchers from multiple disciplines to form transdisciplinary theories and teams to increase the well-being of not only humans but the systems of care within their nations. Arguably the most comprehensive scholarly resource available for study in this area, the Routledge Handbook of Health Communication serves an invaluable role and reference for students, researchers, and scholars doing work in health communication.
Download and read online Improving Drug Safety A Joint Responsibility in PDF and EPUB As the focus on pharmaceuticals has broadened from concern for their cost and effectiveness to their real and potential risks and benefits, a critical question has been raised: whose responsibility is it to improve drug safety? In April 1990, this question became the theme for a conference at Wolfsberg, Switzerland, near the shores of Lake Constance. Called an "international dialogue conference" by its organizers, the meeting brought together leaders from the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities, academia, medicine, consumer organizations and the media. Opening addresses were given by representatives of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations (IFPMA), the Swiss International Pharmaceutical Agency, and the RAD-AR Consortium. This book documents the papers presented and discussions held at this conference, which took the topic of risks and benefits of drug therapy one step further to responsibility. It includes a rich menu of issues for those who care about the evaluation of drug therapy, the ethics behind it, the expectations of the patient, and the role of traditional and nontraditional drug safety communica tions. The ideas expressed here come from different parts of the world but relate to common drug safety problems, observations, and scientific assessments; they provide insights into innovative approaches, cautious changes, and desired actions. The papers in this volume are broadly divided into conceptual perspectives (ethics, how the knowledge about drug risks and benefits is generated and appraised, the expectations in drug safety) and operational perspectives (communication, discussion, and action).