Download and read online Molecular Evolution and Adaptive Radiation in PDF and EPUB This volume surveys advances in the study of adaptive radiation showing how molecular characters can be used to analyze the origin and pattern of diversification within a lineage in a non-circular fashion.
Download and read online Life History Evolution in Plants in PDF and EPUB "The lack of discussion of the life histories of modular organisms is the weakness of this book that I most regret. . . . Modular organisms are different. " S. C. Steams: The Evolution of Life Histories (1992) Life-history theory endeavours to increase our understanding of the processe,s whereby the broad features of the life cycles of organisms, such as the timing and magnitude of reproduction, have evolved. Although reproductive traits have dominated as study objects due to their immediate importance for evolutionary success, much work has also been conducted on patterns of development, growth and senescence, as well as on the shifts in resource allocation related to these processes. The basic axiom of life-history theory is that patterns of life histories, such as reproductive traits, are subject to evolutionary explanation. This idea can be traced back at least as far as Darwin's Origin of Species (1859). In his discussion of plant domestication, Darwin wrote: "I cannot doubt that the continued selection of slight variations, either in the leaves, the flowers, or the fruit, will produce races differing from each other chiefly in these characters". Darwin was impressed by the success of plant breeders in moulding the growth and reproductive parameters of cultivated plants, and believed that natural selection could have a similar impact in natural populations.
Download and read online Australian Echinoderms in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Lost Sex in PDF and EPUB Sex is the queen of problems in evolutionary biology. Generations of researchers have investigated one of the last remaining evolutionary paradoxes: why sex exists at all. Given that sexual reproduction is costly from an evolutionary point of view, one could wonder why not all animals and plants reproduce asexually. Dozens of contemporary hypotheses attempt to explain the prevalence of sex and its advantages and predict the early extinction of fully asexual lineages. The major theme of this book is: what is the fate of animal and plant groups in which sex is lost? Initial chapters discuss theory behind asexual life: what major disadvantages do asexual groups have to face, what are the genetic and ecological consequences and what does this theory predict for more applied aspects of asexual life, for example in agricultural pests, diseases as well as in cultural crops such as grapes. Cases studies in many animals (focusing on both invertebrates and vertebrates) and plants reveal parallel, but also singularly novel adaptations to the absence of meiosis and syngamy. And last but not least, are asexuals really doomed to early extinction or do genuine ancient asexuals exist? This book assembles contributions from the most important research groups dealing with asexual evolution in eukaryotes. It is a milestone in research on parthenogenesis and will be useful to undergraduate as well as graduate students and to senior researchers in all fields of evolutionary biology, as the paradox of sex remains its queen of problems.
Download and read online Population Cycles in PDF and EPUB For over sixty years, understanding the causes of multiannual cycles in animal populations has been a central issue in ecology. This book brings together ten of the leaders in this field to examine the major hypotheses and recent evidence in the field, and to establish that trophic interactions are an important factor in driving at least some of the major regular oscillations in animal populations that have long puzzled ecologists.
Download and read online M alamalama in PDF and EPUB In 1907 Hawai i's fledgling College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, boasting an enrollment of five students and a staff of twelve, opened in a rented house on Young Street. The hastily improvised college, and the university into which it grew, owed its existence to the initiative of Native Hawaiian legislators, the advocacy of a Caucasian newspaper editor, the petition of an Asian American bank cashier, and the energies of a president and faculty recruited from Cornell University in distant Ithaca, New York. Today, nearly a century later, some 50,000 students are enrolled yearly at ten campuses--in a unique system of community colleges and professional schools. Malamalama: A History of the University of Hawai i documents the many contributions the University has made over the decades to culture and education in the islands. From its start, the University rejected the racial stereotyping and prejudice common in territorial Hawai i, thus fostering an ease of association among students of diverse backgrounds and providing, through student government and campus societies, a venue where future political leaders of the islands could hone their skills. The story of how the University of Hawai i grew from a regional undergraduate college to an internationally recognized graduate and research university, weathering repeated crises along the way, is told by emeritus professors Kamins and Potter in Part I. They highlight the University's relationship with the legislature, the actions and personalities of its very different presidents, and the effects of social upheaval and changing budgets on an evolving institution. Three alumni provide personal accounts of their years at the University. Parts II and III offer particular histories by knowledgeable contributors, including faculty members and administrators, of the Hilo and West Oahu campuses, of each fo the seven community colleges, and of programs at the Manoa campus. The strands of history woven together here reveal the University's abiding determination to serve as a cultural link across the Pacific and among Hawai i's own ethnic communities. The University seal, dominated by the Hawaiian word malamalama, light of knowledge, depicts a map of the Pacific hemisphere, celebrating the great diversity of people and cultures that contributed to its founding and the westward reach of its connections. "
Download and read online The Routledge International Encyclopedia of Education in PDF and EPUB The Routledge International Encyclopedia of Education is a unique and major resource for the field of education. It is a comprehensive, single-volume work, arranged alphabetically and comprising around 600 entries. The entries range from definitions of key educational concepts and terms to biographies of key educators and specially written substantial essays on major educational topics. The volume includes authoritative and critical commentary on historical and contemporary themes; examinations of continuities, changes and emerging issues; and discussions of the educational traditions and features of major countries and continents. The following special features are also included: Unrivalled coverage of education in a single volume Entries by leading international educational researchers Contributors drawn from all over the globe, including Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Finland, India, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States A distinguished international advisory board Fully cross-referenced and indexed Suggestions for further reading Offering insight into the world of education in an interesting, informed and sometimes provocative way, The Routledge International Encyclopedia of Education is an invaluable work of reference for educators, students, researchers and policy makers in education and related fields internationally.
Download and read online Parasite Diversity and Diversification in PDF and EPUB The development of molecular tools has dramatically increased our knowledge of parasite diversity and the vectors that transmit them. From viruses and protists to arthropods and helminths, each branch of the Tree of Life offers an insight into significant, yet cryptic, biodiversity. Alongside this, the studies of host-parasite interactions and parasitism have influenced many scientific disciplines, such as biogeography and evolutionary ecology, by using comparative methods based on phylogenetic information to unravel shared evolutionary histories. Parasite Diversity and Diversification brings together two active fields of research, phylogenetics and evolutionary ecology, to reveal and explain the patterns of parasite diversity and the diversification of their hosts. This book will encourage students and researchers in the fields of ecology and evolution of parasitism, as well as animal and human health, to integrate phylogenetics into the investigation of parasitism in evolutionary ecology, health ecology, medicine and conservation.
Download and read online Quick Reference for Counselors in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online VTAC eGuide 2016 in PDF and EPUB The VTAC eGuide is the Victorian Tertiary Admissions Centre’s annual guide to application for tertiary study, scholarships and special consideration in Victoria, Australia. The eGuide contains course listings and selection criteria for over 1,700 courses at 62 institutions including universities, TAFE institutes and independent tertiary colleges.
Download and read online Choosing Your Degree Course and University in PDF and EPUB Listing over 70,000 different course options, 1000 subjects and over 300 institutions to choose from, this book outlines what is involved in the study of a subject and how the courses may vary from one institution to another.
Download and read online Animal Signals in PDF and EPUB How can we explain the peacock's beautiful tail decorations, or the wonderful song of the nightingale? Why are some smells nice and others nasty? Understanding the signalling systems of nature has wide-ranging relevance including biological conservation and human communication. Animal Signals provides a state-of-the-art update on current knowledge within this rapidly developing field. Written by leading international scientists, it provides a comprehensive overview of the fascinating diversity of animal signals and signalling functions. Combining reviews and novel research, the book is aimed both at students and professional scientists.
Download and read online Peterson s Guide to Graduate Programs in the Biological and Agricultural Sciences 1990 in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Coelenterate Biology 2003 in PDF and EPUB This volume, the proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Coelenterate Biology, is organized as the meeting was around six topics. Because several sessions of ICCB7 constituted the 2003 North American meeting of the International Society for Reef Studies, the subject of coral reefs is strongly represented in the section on Ecology. The other themes are Neurobiology; Reproduction, Development, and Life Cycles; Pioneers in Coelenterate Biology; Cnidae; and Taxonomy and Systematics. Ctenophores, as well as representatives of all four classes of cnidarians are among the study subjects of the research reported in this volume. The theme of variability runs through the volume – be it in cnidae, morphology, behavior, neurobiology, ecology, colony form, or reproduction, variability is a major reason these animals are so interesting and challenging to study! This is a must-read resource for anyone doing research – or planning to do research – on cnidarians and ctenophores.
Download and read online Describing Species in PDF and EPUB New species are discovered every day—and cataloguing all of them has grown into a nearly insurmountable task world-wide. Now, this definitive reference manual acts as a style guide for writing and filing species descriptions. New collecting techniques and new technology have led to a dramatic increase in the number of species that are discovered. Explorations of unstudied regions and new habitats for almost any group of organisms can result in a large number of new species discoveries—and hence the need to be described. Yet there is no one source a student or researcher can readily consult to learn the basic practical aspects of taxonomic procedures. Species description can present a variety of difficulties: Problems arise when new species are not given names because their discoverers do not know how to write a formal species description or when these species are poorly described. Biologists may also have to deal with nomenclatural problems created by previous workers or resulting from new information generated by their own research. This practical resource for scientists and students contains instructions and examples showing how to describe newly discovered species in both the animal and plant kingdoms. With special chapters on publishing taxonomic papers and on ecology in species description, as well as sections covering subspecies, genus-level, and higher taxa descriptions, Describing Species enhances any writer's taxonomic projects, reports, checklists, floras, faunal surveys, revisions, monographs, or guides. The volume is based on current versions of the International Codes of Zoological and Botanical Nomenclature and recognizes that systematics is a global and multicultural exercise. Though Describing Species has been written for an English-speaking audience, it is useful anywhere Taxonomy is spoken and will be a valuable tool for professionals and students in zoology, botany, ecology, paleontology, and other fields of biology.