Neural Network Methods in Natural Language Processing

Filename: neural-network-methods-in-natural-language-processing.pdf
ISBN: 9781627052955
Release Date: 2017-04-17
Number of pages: 309
Author: Yoav Goldberg
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

Download and read online Neural Network Methods in Natural Language Processing in PDF and EPUB Neural networks are a family of powerful machine learning models. This book focuses on the application of neural network models to natural language data. The first half of the book (Parts I and II) covers the basics of supervised machine learning and feed-forward neural networks, the basics of working with machine learning over language data, and the use of vector-based rather than symbolic representations for words. It also covers the computation-graph abstraction, which allows to easily define and train arbitrary neural networks, and is the basis behind the design of contemporary neural network software libraries. The second part of the book (Parts III and IV) introduces more specialized neural network architectures, including 1D convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, conditioned-generation models, and attention-based models. These architectures and techniques are the driving force behind state-of-the-art algorithms for machine translation, syntactic parsing, and many other applications. Finally, we also discuss tree-shaped networks, structured prediction, and the prospects of multi-task learning.


Neural Network Methods in Natural Language Processing

Filename: neural-network-methods-in-natural-language-processing.pdf
ISBN: 9781681731551
Release Date: 2017-04-17
Number of pages: 309
Author: Yoav Goldberg
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

Download and read online Neural Network Methods in Natural Language Processing in PDF and EPUB Neural networks are a family of powerful machine learning models. This book focuses on the application of neural network models to natural language data. The first half of the book (Parts I and II) covers the basics of supervised machine learning and feed-forward neural networks, the basics of working with machine learning over language data, and the use of vector-based rather than symbolic representations for words. It also covers the computation-graph abstraction, which allows to easily define and train arbitrary neural networks, and is the basis behind the design of contemporary neural network software libraries. The second part of the book (Parts III and IV) introduces more specialized neural network architectures, including 1D convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, conditioned-generation models, and attention-based models. These architectures and techniques are the driving force behind state-of-the-art algorithms for machine translation, syntactic parsing, and many other applications. Finally, we also discuss tree-shaped networks, structured prediction, and the prospects of multi-task learning.


Handbook of Natural Language Processing

Filename: handbook-of-natural-language-processing.pdf
ISBN: 0824790006
Release Date: 2000-07-25
Number of pages: 964
Author: Robert Dale
Publisher: CRC Press

Download and read online Handbook of Natural Language Processing in PDF and EPUB This study explores the design and application of natural language text-based processing systems, based on generative linguistics, empirical copus analysis, and artificial neural networks. It emphasizes the practical tools to accommodate the selected system.


Neural Networks for Vision Speech and Natural Language

Filename: neural-networks-for-vision-speech-and-natural-language.pdf
ISBN: 9789401123600
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Number of pages: 442
Author: R. Linggard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

Download and read online Neural Networks for Vision Speech and Natural Language in PDF and EPUB This book is a collection of chapters describing work carried out as part of a large project at BT Laboratories to study the application of connectionist methods to problems in vision, speech and natural language processing. Also, since the theoretical formulation and the hardware realization of neural networks are significant tasks in themselves, these problems too were addressed. The book, therefore, is divided into five Parts, reporting results in vision, speech, natural language, hardware implementation and network architectures. The three editors of this book have, at one time or another, been involved in planning and running the connectionist project. From the outset, we were concerned to involve the academic community as widely as possible, and consequently, in its first year, over thirty university research groups were funded for small scale studies on the various topics. Co-ordinating such a widely spread project was no small task, and in order to concentrate minds and resources, sets of test problems were devised which were typical of the application areas and were difficult enough to be worthy of study. These are described in the text, and constitute one of the successes of the project.


Subsymbolic Natural Language Processing

Filename: subsymbolic-natural-language-processing.pdf
ISBN: 0262132907
Release Date: 1993
Number of pages: 391
Author: Risto Miikkulainen
Publisher: MIT Press

Download and read online Subsymbolic Natural Language Processing in PDF and EPUB Risto Miikkulainen draws on recent connectionist work in language comprehension tocreate a model that can understand natural language. Using the DISCERN system as an example, hedescribes a general approach to building high-level cognitive models from distributed neuralnetworks and shows how the special properties of such networks are useful in modeling humanperformance. In this approach connectionist networks are not only plausible models of isolatedcognitive phenomena, but also sufficient constituents for complete artificial intelligencesystems.Distributed neural networks have been very successful in modeling isolated cognitivephenomena, but complex high-level behavior has been tractable only with symbolic artificialintelligence techniques. Aiming to bridge this gap, Miikkulainen describes DISCERN, a completenatural language processing system implemented entirely at the subsymbolic level. In DISCERN,distributed neural network models of parsing, generating, reasoning, lexical processing, andepisodic memory are integrated into a single system that learns to read, paraphrase, and answerquestions about stereotypical narratives.Miikkulainen's work, which includes a comprehensive surveyof the connectionist literature related to natural language processing, will prove especiallyvaluable to researchers interested in practical techniques for high-level representation,inferencing, memory modeling, and modular connectionist architectures.Risto Miikkulainen is anAssistant Professor in the Department of Computer Sciences at The University of Texas atAustin.


The Handbook of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing

Filename: the-handbook-of-computational-linguistics-and-natural-language-processing.pdf
ISBN: 9781118448670
Release Date: 2013-04-24
Number of pages: 650
Author: Alexander Clark
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

Download and read online The Handbook of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing in PDF and EPUB This comprehensive reference work provides an overview of the concepts, methodologies, and applications in computational linguistics and natural language processing (NLP). Features contributions by the top researchers in the field, reflecting the work that is driving the discipline forward Includes an introduction to the major theoretical issues in these fields, as well as the central engineering applications that the work has produced Presents the major developments in an accessible way, explaining the close connection between scientific understanding of the computational properties of natural language and the creation of effective language technologies Serves as an invaluable state-of-the-art reference source for computational linguists and software engineers developing NLP applications in industrial research and development labs of software companies


Learning to Rank for Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing

Filename: learning-to-rank-for-information-retrieval-and-natural-language-processing.pdf
ISBN: 9781627055857
Release Date: 2014-10-01
Number of pages: 121
Author: Hang Li
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

Download and read online Learning to Rank for Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing in PDF and EPUB Learning to rank refers to machine learning techniques for training a model in a ranking task. Learning to rank is useful for many applications in information retrieval, natural language processing, and data mining. Intensive studies have been conducted on its problems recently, and significant progress has been made. This lecture gives an introduction to the area including the fundamental problems, major approaches, theories, applications, and future work. The author begins by showing that various ranking problems in information retrieval and natural language processing can be formalized as two basic ranking tasks, namely ranking creation (or simply ranking) and ranking aggregation. In ranking creation, given a request, one wants to generate a ranking list of offerings based on the features derived from the request and the offerings. In ranking aggregation, given a request, as well as a number of ranking lists of offerings, one wants to generate a new ranking list of the offerings. Ranking creation (or ranking) is the major problem in learning to rank. It is usually formalized as a supervised learning task. The author gives detailed explanations on learning for ranking creation and ranking aggregation, including training and testing, evaluation, feature creation, and major approaches. Many methods have been proposed for ranking creation. The methods can be categorized as the pointwise, pairwise, and listwise approaches according to the loss functions they employ. They can also be categorized according to the techniques they employ, such as the SVM based, Boosting based, and Neural Network based approaches. The author also introduces some popular learning to rank methods in details. These include: PRank, OC SVM, McRank, Ranking SVM, IR SVM, GBRank, RankNet, ListNet & ListMLE, AdaRank, SVM MAP, SoftRank, LambdaRank, LambdaMART, Borda Count, Markov Chain, and CRanking. The author explains several example applications of learning to rank including web search, collaborative filtering, definition search, keyphrase extraction, query dependent summarization, and re-ranking in machine translation. A formulation of learning for ranking creation is given in the statistical learning framework. Ongoing and future research directions for learning to rank are also discussed. Table of Contents: Learning to Rank / Learning for Ranking Creation / Learning for Ranking Aggregation / Methods of Learning to Rank / Applications of Learning to Rank / Theory of Learning to Rank / Ongoing and Future Work


Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing

Filename: foundations-of-statistical-natural-language-processing.pdf
ISBN: 0262133601
Release Date: 1999
Number of pages: 680
Author: Christopher D. Manning
Publisher: MIT Press

Download and read online Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing in PDF and EPUB An introduction to statistical natural language processing (NLP). The text contains the theory and algorithms needed for building NLP tools. Topics covered include: mathematical and linguistic foundations; statistical methods; collocation finding; word sense disambiguation; and probalistic parsing.


Bayesian Analysis in Natural Language Processing

Filename: bayesian-analysis-in-natural-language-processing.pdf
ISBN: 9781627054218
Release Date: 2016-06-01
Number of pages: 274
Author: Shay Cohen
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

Download and read online Bayesian Analysis in Natural Language Processing in PDF and EPUB Natural language processing (NLP) went through a profound transformation in the mid-1980s when it shifted to make heavy use of corpora and data-driven techniques to analyze language. Since then, the use of statistical techniques in NLP has evolved in several ways. One such example of evolution took place in the late 1990s or early 2000s, when full-fledged Bayesian machinery was introduced to NLP. This Bayesian approach to NLP has come to accommodate for various shortcomings in the frequentist approach and to enrich it, especially in the unsupervised setting, where statistical learning is done without target prediction examples. We cover the methods and algorithms that are needed to fluently read Bayesian learning papers in NLP and to do research in the area. These methods and algorithms are partially borrowed from both machine learning and statistics and are partially developed "in-house" in NLP. We cover inference techniques such as Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and variational inference, Bayesian estimation, and nonparametric modeling. We also cover fundamental concepts in Bayesian statistics such as prior distributions, conjugacy, and generative modeling. Finally, we cover some of the fundamental modeling techniques in NLP, such as grammar modeling and their use with Bayesian analysis.


Linguistic Fundamentals for Natural Language Processing

Filename: linguistic-fundamentals-for-natural-language-processing.pdf
ISBN: 9781627050128
Release Date: 2013-06-01
Number of pages: 184
Author: Emily M. Bender
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

Download and read online Linguistic Fundamentals for Natural Language Processing in PDF and EPUB Many NLP tasks have at their core a subtask of extracting the dependencies—who did what to whom—from natural language sentences. This task can be understood as the inverse of the problem solved in different ways by diverse human languages, namely, how to indicate the relationship between different parts of a sentence. Understanding how languages solve the problem can be extremely useful in both feature design and error analysis in the application of machine learning to NLP. Likewise, understanding cross-linguistic variation can be important for the design of MT systems and other multilingual applications. The purpose of this book is to present in a succinct and accessible fashion information about the morphological and syntactic structure of human languages that can be useful in creating more linguistically sophisticated, more language-independent, and thus more successful NLP systems. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments / Introduction/motivation / Morphology: Introduction / Morphophonology / Morphosyntax / Syntax: Introduction / Parts of speech / Heads, arguments, and adjuncts / Argument types and grammatical functions / Mismatches between syntactic position and semantic roles / Resources / Bibliography / Author's Biography / General Index / Index of Languages


Natural Language Processing with Python

Filename: natural-language-processing-with-python.pdf
ISBN: 9780596555719
Release Date: 2009-06-12
Number of pages: 504
Author: Steven Bird
Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

Download and read online Natural Language Processing with Python in PDF and EPUB This book offers a highly accessible introduction to natural language processing, the field that supports a variety of language technologies, from predictive text and email filtering to automatic summarization and translation. With it, you'll learn how to write Python programs that work with large collections of unstructured text. You'll access richly annotated datasets using a comprehensive range of linguistic data structures, and you'll understand the main algorithms for analyzing the content and structure of written communication. Packed with examples and exercises, Natural Language Processing with Python will help you: Extract information from unstructured text, either to guess the topic or identify "named entities" Analyze linguistic structure in text, including parsing and semantic analysis Access popular linguistic databases, including WordNet and treebanks Integrate techniques drawn from fields as diverse as linguistics and artificial intelligence This book will help you gain practical skills in natural language processing using the Python programming language and the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) open source library. If you're interested in developing web applications, analyzing multilingual news sources, or documenting endangered languages -- or if you're simply curious to have a programmer's perspective on how human language works -- you'll find Natural Language Processing with Python both fascinating and immensely useful.


Mastering Natural Language Processing with Python

Filename: mastering-natural-language-processing-with-python.pdf
ISBN: 9781783989058
Release Date: 2016-06-10
Number of pages: 238
Author: Deepti Chopra
Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd

Download and read online Mastering Natural Language Processing with Python in PDF and EPUB Maximize your NLP capabilities while creating amazing NLP projects in Python About This Book Learn to implement various NLP tasks in Python Gain insights into the current and budding research topics of NLP This is a comprehensive step-by-step guide to help students and researchers create their own projects based on real-life applications Who This Book Is For This book is for intermediate level developers in NLP with a reasonable knowledge level and understanding of Python. What You Will Learn Implement string matching algorithms and normalization techniques Implement statistical language modeling techniques Get an insight into developing a stemmer, lemmatizer, morphological analyzer, and morphological generator Develop a search engine and implement POS tagging concepts and statistical modeling concepts involving the n gram approach Familiarize yourself with concepts such as the Treebank construct, CFG construction, the CYK Chart Parsing algorithm, and the Earley Chart Parsing algorithm Develop an NER-based system and understand and apply the concepts of sentiment analysis Understand and implement the concepts of Information Retrieval and text summarization Develop a Discourse Analysis System and Anaphora Resolution based system In Detail Natural Language Processing is one of the fields of computational linguistics and artificial intelligence that is concerned with human-computer interaction. It provides a seamless interaction between computers and human beings and gives computers the ability to understand human speech with the help of machine learning. This book will give you expertise on how to employ various NLP tasks in Python, giving you an insight into the best practices when designing and building NLP-based applications using Python. It will help you become an expert in no time and assist you in creating your own NLP projects using NLTK. You will sequentially be guided through applying machine learning tools to develop various models. We'll give you clarity on how to create training data and how to implement major NLP applications such as Named Entity Recognition, Question Answering System, Discourse Analysis, Transliteration, Word Sense disambiguation, Information Retrieval, Sentiment Analysis, Text Summarization, and Anaphora Resolution. Style and approach This is an easy-to-follow guide, full of hands-on examples of real-world tasks. Each topic is explained and placed in context, and for the more inquisitive, there are more details of the concepts used.


Lifelong Machine Learning

Filename: lifelong-machine-learning.pdf
ISBN: 9781627058773
Release Date: 2016-11-07
Number of pages: 145
Author: Zhiyuan Chen
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

Download and read online Lifelong Machine Learning in PDF and EPUB Lifelong Machine Learning (or Lifelong Learning) is an advanced machine learning paradigm that learns continuously, accumulates the knowledge learned in previous tasks, and uses it to help future learning. In the process, the learner becomes more and more knowledgeable and effective at learning. This learning ability is one of the hallmarks of human intelligence. However, the current dominant machine learning paradigm learns in isolation: given a training dataset, it runs a machine learning algorithm on the dataset to produce a model. It makes no attempt to retain the learned knowledge and use it in future learning. Although this isolated learning paradigm has been very successful, it requires a large number of training examples, and is only suitable for well-defined and narrow tasks. In comparison, we humans can learn effectively with a few examples because we have accumulated so much knowledge in the past which enables us to learn with little data or effort. Lifelong learning aims to achieve this capability. As statistical machine learning matures, it is time to make a major effort to break the isolated learning tradition and to study lifelong learning to bring machine learning to new heights. Applications such as intelligent assistants, chatbots, and physical robots that interact with humans and systems in real-life environments are also calling for such lifelong learning capabilities. Without the ability to accumulate the learned knowledge and use it to learn more knowledge incrementally, a system will probably never be truly intelligent. This book serves as an introductory text and survey to lifelong learning.


Handbook of Neural Computation

Filename: handbook-of-neural-computation.pdf
ISBN: 9780128113196
Release Date: 2017-07-18
Number of pages: 658
Author: Pijush Samui
Publisher: Academic Press

Download and read online Handbook of Neural Computation in PDF and EPUB Handbook of Neural Computation explores neural computation applications, ranging from conventional fields of mechanical and civil engineering, to electronics, electrical engineering and computer science. This book covers the numerous applications of artificial and deep neural networks and their uses in learning machines, including image and speech recognition, natural language processing and risk analysis. Edited by renowned authorities in this field, this work is comprised of articles from reputable industry and academic scholars and experts from around the world. Each contributor presents a specific research issue with its recent and future trends. As the demand rises in the engineering and medical industries for neural networks and other machine learning methods to solve different types of operations, such as data prediction, classification of images, analysis of big data, and intelligent decision-making, this book provides readers with the latest, cutting-edge research in one comprehensive text. Features high-quality research articles on multivariate adaptive regression splines, the minimax probability machine, and more Discusses machine learning techniques, including classification, clustering, regression, web mining, information retrieval and natural language processing Covers supervised, unsupervised, reinforced, ensemble, and nature-inspired learning methods


Natural Language Annotation for Machine Learning

Filename: natural-language-annotation-for-machine-learning.pdf
ISBN: 9781449359768
Release Date: 2012-10-11
Number of pages: 342
Author: James Pustejovsky
Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

Download and read online Natural Language Annotation for Machine Learning in PDF and EPUB Create your own natural language training corpus for machine learning. Whether you’re working with English, Chinese, or any other natural language, this hands-on book guides you through a proven annotation development cycle—the process of adding metadata to your training corpus to help ML algorithms work more efficiently. You don’t need any programming or linguistics experience to get started. Using detailed examples at every step, you’ll learn how the MATTER Annotation Development Process helps you Model, Annotate, Train, Test, Evaluate, and Revise your training corpus. You also get a complete walkthrough of a real-world annotation project. Define a clear annotation goal before collecting your dataset (corpus) Learn tools for analyzing the linguistic content of your corpus Build a model and specification for your annotation project Examine the different annotation formats, from basic XML to the Linguistic Annotation Framework Create a gold standard corpus that can be used to train and test ML algorithms Select the ML algorithms that will process your annotated data Evaluate the test results and revise your annotation task Learn how to use lightweight software for annotating texts and adjudicating the annotations This book is a perfect companion to O’Reilly’s Natural Language Processing with Python.