Download and read online Plant Evolution in PDF and EPUB Although plants comprise more than 90% of all visible life, and land plants and algae collectively make up the most morphologically, physiologically, and ecologically diverse group of organisms on earth, books on evolution instead tend to focus on animals. This organismal bias has led to an incomplete and often erroneous understanding of evolutionary theory. Because plants grow and reproduce differently than animals, they have evolved differently, and generally accepted evolutionary views—as, for example, the standard models of speciation—often fail to hold when applied to them. Tapping such wide-ranging topics as genetics, gene regulatory networks, phenotype mapping, and multicellularity, as well as paleobotany, Karl J. Niklas’s Plant Evolution offers fresh insight into these differences. Following up on his landmark book The Evolutionary Biology of Plants—in which he drew on cutting-edge computer simulations that used plants as models to illuminate key evolutionary theories—Niklas incorporates data from more than a decade of new research in the flourishing field of molecular biology, conveying not only why the study of evolution is so important, but also why the study of plants is essential to our understanding of evolutionary processes. Niklas shows us that investigating the intricacies of plant development, the diversification of early vascular land plants, and larger patterns in plant evolution is not just a botanical pursuit: it is vital to our comprehension of the history of all life on this green planet.
Download and read online Plant evolution in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Molecular Systematics and Plant Evolution in PDF and EPUB Molecular Systematics and Plant Evolution discusses the diversity and evolution of plants with a molecular approach. It looks at population genetics, phylogeny (history of evolution) and developmental genetics, to provide a framework from which to understand evolutionary patterns and relationships amongst plants. The international panel of contributors are all respected systematists and evolutionary biologists, who have brought together a wide range of topics from the forefront of research while keeping the text accessible to students. It has been written for senior undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in the fields of botany, systematics, population / conservation genetics, phylogenetics and evolutionary biology.
Download and read online Plants A Very Short Introduction in PDF and EPUB Plants are a fundamental part of the biosphere and their evolution has directly affected animal life, and the Earth's climate. This Very Short Introduction provides a concise account of the nature of plants, their variety, their evolution, and their importance and uses, stressing the importance of conservation for the future.
Download and read online The Evolution of Plants in PDF and EPUB Blends evidence from the fossil record and data from biomolecular studies to tell the story of plant evolution from the earliest forms of life to the present day. Its straightforward explanations and clear illustrations provide the most accessible introduction to plant evolution available.
Download and read online Die Entstehung der Arten Illustriert in PDF and EPUB Charles Darwin: Über die Entstehung der Arten durch natürliche Zuchtwahl oder die Erhaltung der begünstigten Rassen im Kampfe ums Dasein • Für die eBook-Ausgabe neu editiert • Mit eingeklinkter Bilderstrecke (22 Illustrationen) • An die moderne Rechtschreibung angepasst, ohne den Charakter des Textes zu verfälschen • Mit Hypertext-Inhaltsverzeichnis und vollständig verlinkten Kapiteln, Unterkapiteln und Fußnoten Bestseller-Autor Rolf Dobelli (»Die Kunst des klaren Denkens«) über dieses Buch: »›Über die Entstehung der Arten‹ war 1859 ein Paukenschlag, wie es ihn in der Geschichte der Wissenschaft vorher und nachher kaum je gegeben hat. Seither spielt sich praktisch jede Diskussion unter Biologen vor dem Hintergrund der Evolutionstheorie ab. Zahlreiche Wissenschaftler machten sich Darwins Thesen rasch zu Eigen und vertraten sie energisch, während die Gegnerschaft sich vor allem aus weltanschaulichen Motiven speiste. Darwins Evolutionstheorie wurde, ohne dass er diese Möglichkeit besonders betont hätte, sofort auch auf den Menschen bezogen – und naturgemäß war dies der Punkt, an dem sich die Geister am erbittertsten schieden.« Die für viele schockierende grundlegende Einsicht Darwins hat sich erst in den letzten Jahrzehnten in der Wissenschaft vollständig durchgesetzt: »Der Unterschied zwischen Mensch und Tier ist auf keinem Gebiet ein grundsätzlicher, sondern stets nur ein gradueller.« (Dobelli)
Download and read online Plant Life in PDF and EPUB Charles Darwin, the father of the theory of evolution, described the evolutionary origin of flowering plants, which appear to have risen abruptly during the late Cretaceous Period, as an "abominable mystery." The first seed plants appeared in the fossil record some 230 million years earlier, but the transitions leading to the flowering plants left few fossils and remain obscure. The evolutionary history of photosynthetic organisms is full of mysteries great and small, including the origin of photosynthesis itself, the origins of multiple independent lines of algae, the loss of flagella in the red algae, the origin of sporophytes in vascular and non-vascular plants, the early diversification of seed plants, and the origin of the unique monocots. In Plant Life: A Brief History, botanist Frederick Essig traces how familiar features of plants evolved sequentially over hundreds of millions of years as various environmental challenges and opportunities were met. This chronological narrative begins with the origin of photosynthesis and the rise of cyanobacteria, continues with the evolution and diversification of photosynthetic eukaryotes and their invasion of dry land, explores the varied adaptations for sexual reproduction and dispersal in the terrestrial environment, and concludes with the diverse growth forms of the flowering plants. As different groups of photosynthetic organisms are introduced, the book emphasizes the adaptations that enabled them to gain dominance in existing habitats or move into new habitats. Readers will acquire a deeper understanding of the diverse photosynthetic organisms humans depend upon for food, oxygen, medicine, building materials, and aesthetic pleasure. With accessible writing and a myriad of figures and illustrations, Essig provides a broad overview of plant evolution that will appeal to students and general audiences alike. Plant Life: A Brief History is a valiant step in the quest to unravel the "abominable mysteries" of plant evolution, and offers a compelling introduction to the exciting and complex world of evolutionary biology.
Download and read online Introduction to Plant Population Biology in PDF and EPUB This completely revised, fourth edition of Introduction to Plant Population Biology continues the approach taken by its highly successful predecessors. Ecological and genetic principles are introduced and theory is made accessible by clear, accurate exposition with plentiful examples. Models and theoretical arguments are developed gradually, requiring a minimum of mathematics. The book emphasizes the particular characteristics of plants that affect their population biology, and evolutionary questions that are particularly relevant for plants. Wherever appropriate, it is shown how ecology and genetics interact, presenting a rounded picture of the population biology of plants. Topics covered include variation and its inheritance, genetic markers including molecular markers, plant breeding systems, ecological genetics, intraspecific interactions, population dynamics, regional dynamics and metapopulations, competition and coexistence, and the evolution of breeding systems and life history. An extensive bibliography provides access to the recent literature that will be invaluable to students and academics alike. Effective integration of plant population ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The new edition is thoroughly revised and now includes molecular techniques. The genetics chapters have been completely rewritten by a new co-author, Deborah Charlesworth.
Download and read online ber die Einrichtungen zur Befruchtung britischer und ausl ndischer Orchideen durch Insekten in PDF and EPUB Nachdruck des Originals von 1862.
Download and read online Bringing Fossils to Life in PDF and EPUB The leading textbook in its field, this work applies paleobiological principles to the fossil record while detailing the evolutionary history of major plant and animal phyla. It incorporates current research from biology, ecology, and population genetics. Written for biology and geology undergrads, the text bridges the gap between purely theoretical paleobiology and solely descriptive invertebrate paleobiology books, emphasizing the cataloguing of live organisms over dead objects. This third edition revises art and research throughout, expands the coverage of invertebrates, includes a discussion of new methodologies, and adds a chapter on the origin and early evolution of life.
Download and read online The plant kingdom in PDF and EPUB The science of botany; Cells, reproduction, and life cycle; Evolution and classification of plants; Division schizophyta: the bacteria; Introduction to the algae: Division cyanophyta; Division chlorophyta: The gren algae; Division chrysopgyta: The golden algae; Division euglenophyta; Division pyrrphyta: The dinoflagellates; Division phaeophyta: The brown algae; Division rhodophyta: the red algae; Introduction to the fungi: The myxomycetes; Division mycophyta, class phycomycetes; Division mycophyta, class ascomycetes; Division mycophyta, class basidiomycetes; Lichens; Life on the land; Division bryophyta; Introduction to the vascular plants: Division psilophyta; Division lycophyta; Division equisetophyta; Division filicophyta; the ferns; Introduction to the seed plants.
Download and read online Extinctions in the History of Life in PDF and EPUB Extinction is the ultimate fate of all biological species - over 99 percent of the species that have ever inhabited the Earth are now extinct. The long fossil record of life provides scientists with crucial information about when species became extinct, which species were most vulnerable to extinction, and what processes may have brought about extinctions in the geological past. Key aspects of extinctions in the history of life are here reviewed by six leading palaeontologists, providing a source text for geology and biology undergraduates as well as more advanced scholars. Topical issues such as the causes of mass extinctions and how animal and plant life has recovered from these cataclysmic events that have shaped biological evolution are dealt with. This helps us to view the biodiversity crisis in a broader context, and shows how large-scale extinctions have had profound and long-lasting effects on the Earth's biosphere.
Download and read online Eine kurze Geschichte von fast allem in PDF and EPUB Wie groß ist eigentlich das Universum? Was wiegt unsere Erde? Und wie ist das überhaupt möglich – die Erde zu wiegen? In seinem großen Buch nimmt uns Bestsellerautor Bill Bryson mit auf eine atemberaubende Reise durch Raum und Zeit: Er erklärt uns den Himmel und die Erde, die Sterne und die Meere, und nicht zuletzt die Entstehungsgeschichte des Menschen. »Eine kurze Geschichte von fast allem« ist ein ebenso fundierter und lehrreicher wie unterhaltsamer und amüsanter Ausflug in die Naturwissenschaften, mit dem Bill Bryson das scheinbar Unmögliche vollbracht hat: das Wissen von der Welt in dreißig Kapitel zu packen, die auch für den normalen Leser ohne Vorkenntnisse verständlich sind. Das ideale Buch für alle, die unser Universum und unsere Geschichte endlich verstehen möchten – und dabei auch noch Spaß haben wollen!
Download and read online Versuche ber Pflanzenhybriden in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Evolutionary Biology of Parasites in PDF and EPUB In spite of the fact that parasites represent more than half of all living species of plants and animals, their role in the evolution of life on earth has been substantially underestimated. Here, for the first time within an evolutionary and ecological framework, Peter Price integrates the biological attributes that characterize parasites ranging from such diverse groups as viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, to helminths, mites, insects, and parasitic flowering plants. Synthesizing systematics, ecology, behavioral biology, genetics, and biogeography, the author outlines the success of parasitism as a mode of life, the common features of the wide range of organisms that adopt such a way of life, the reasons for parasites' extraordinary potential for continued adaptive radiation, and their role in molding community structure by means of their impact on the evolution of host species. In demonstrating the importance of parasitic interactions for determining population patterns and geographical distributions, Dr. Price generates further discussion and suggests new areas for research.