Probability Theory

Filename: probability-theory.pdf
ISBN: 0521592712
Release Date: 2003-04-10
Number of pages: 727
Author: E. T. Jaynes
Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Download and read online Probability Theory in PDF and EPUB index


Organon

Filename: organon.pdf
ISBN: 9783843024303
Release Date: 2016-11-01
Number of pages: 524
Author: Aristoteles
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

Download and read online Organon in PDF and EPUB Aristoteles: Organon Das »Organon« ist die aus verschiedenen Einzelschriften zusammengesetzte Logik des Aristoteles. Die Schriften entstanden vermutlich zwischen 367 und 344 v. Chr. Sowohl der Titel als auch die Zusammenstellung gehen nicht unmittelbar auf Aristoteles zurück, sondern sind der peripatetischen Schultradition zuzuschreiben, vielleicht dem Herausgeber Andronikos aus Rhodos, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Inhaltsverzeichnis Organon Kategorien oder Lehre von den Grundbegriffen Hermeneutika oder Lehre vom Urtheil Erste Analytiken oder Lehre vom Schluss Zweite Analytiken oder Lehre vom Erkennen Die Topik Ueber die sophistischen Widerlegungen Neuausgabe mit einer Biographie des Autors. Herausgegeben von Karl-Maria Guth. Berlin 2016, 2. Auflage. Textgrundlage sind die Ausgaben: Aristoteles: Kategorien oder Lehre von den Grundbegriffen. Aristoteles: Hermeneutica oder Lehre vom Urtheil. Übersetzt und erläutert von J. H. von Kirchmann, Leipzig: Erich Koschny, 1876 (Philosophische Bibliothek, Bd. 70). Aristoteles: Erste Analytiken oder: Lehre vom Schluss. Übersetzt und erläutert von J. H. von Kirchmann, Leipzig: Felix Meiner, o. J. (Philosophische Bibliothek, Bd. 10). Aristoteles: Zweite Analytiken oder: Lehre vom Erkennen. Übersetzt und erläutert von J. H. von Kirchmann, Leipzig: Felix Meiner, o. J. (Philosophische Bibliothek, Bd. 10). Aristoteles: Die Topik. Übersetzt und erläutert von J. H. von Kirchmann, Heidelberg: Georg Weiss, 1882 (Philosophische Bibliothek, Bd. 89). Aristoteles: Sophistische Widerlegungen. Übersetzt und erläutert von J. H. von Kirchmann, Heidelberg: Georg Weiss, 1883 (Philosophische Bibliothek, Bd. 91). Die Paginierung obiger Ausgaben wird in dieser Neuausgabe als Marginalie zeilengenau mitgeführt. Umschlaggestaltung von Thomas Schultz-Overhage unter Verwendung des Bildes: Rembrandt: Aristoteles vor der Büste des Homer, 1653. Gesetzt aus der Minion Pro, 11 pt. Über den Autor: 384 v. Chr. als Sohn des Hofarztes Nikomachos in Stageira in Thrakien geboren, wird Aristoteles Mitglied von Platons »Akademie« in Athen und Lehrer des jungen Alexander (dem Großen), der ihn später in seinen Studien unterstützt. Seine Sytematisierung ist bis heute prägend, er ist neben seinem Lehrer Platon und dessen Lehrer Sokrates der dritte große Philosoph der Antike. Aristoteles stirbt 322 v. Chr. bei Chalkis auf Euböa.


Logik der Forschung

Filename: logik-der-forschung.pdf
ISBN: 9783709141779
Release Date: 2013-11-22
Number of pages: 248
Author: Karl Popper
Publisher: Springer-Verlag

Download and read online Logik der Forschung in PDF and EPUB Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.


Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods Garching Germany 1998

Filename: maximum-entropy-and-bayesian-methods-garching-germany-1998.pdf
ISBN: 9789401147101
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Number of pages: 365
Author: Wolfgang von der Linden
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

Download and read online Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods Garching Germany 1998 in PDF and EPUB In 1978 Edwin T. Jaynes and Myron Tribus initiated a series of workshops to exchange ideas and recent developments in technical aspects and applications of Bayesian probability theory. The first workshop was held at the University of Wyoming in 1981 organized by C.R. Smith and W.T. Grandy. Due to its success, the workshop was held annually during the last 18 years. Over the years, the emphasis of the workshop shifted gradually from fundamental concepts of Bayesian probability theory to increasingly realistic and challenging applications. The 18th international workshop on Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods was held in Garching / Munich (Germany) (27-31. July 1998). Opening lectures by G. Larry Bretthorst and by Myron Tribus were dedicated to one of th the pioneers of Bayesian probability theory who died on the 30 of April 1998: Edwin Thompson Jaynes. Jaynes revealed and advocated the correct meaning of 'probability' as the state of knowledge rather than a physical property. This inter pretation allowed him to unravel longstanding mysteries and paradoxes. Bayesian probability theory, "the logic of science" - as E.T. Jaynes called it - provides the framework to make the best possible scientific inference given all available exper imental and theoretical information. We gratefully acknowledge the efforts of Tribus and Bretthorst in commemorating the outstanding contributions of E.T. Jaynes to the development of probability theory.


The Logic of Scientific Discovery

Filename: the-logic-of-scientific-discovery.pdf
ISBN: 9781134470013
Release Date: 2005-11-04
Number of pages: 544
Author: Karl Popper
Publisher: Routledge

Download and read online The Logic of Scientific Discovery in PDF and EPUB Described by the philosopher A.J. Ayer as a work of 'great originality and power', this book revolutionized contemporary thinking on science and knowledge. Ideas such as the now legendary doctrine of 'falsificationism' electrified the scientific community, influencing even working scientists, as well as post-war philosophy. This astonishing work ranks alongside The Open Society and Its Enemies as one of Popper's most enduring books and contains insights and arguments that demand to be read to this day.


Foundations of Probability Theory Statistical Inference and Statistical Theories of Science

Filename: foundations-of-probability-theory-statistical-inference-and-statistical-theories-of-science.pdf
ISBN: 9789401018531
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Number of pages: 309
Author: W.L. Harper
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

Download and read online Foundations of Probability Theory Statistical Inference and Statistical Theories of Science in PDF and EPUB In May of 1973 we organized an international research colloquium on foundations of probability, statistics, and statistical theories of science at the University of Western Ontario. During the past four decades there have been striking formal advances in our understanding of logic, semantics and algebraic structure in probabilistic and statistical theories. These advances, which include the development of the relations between semantics and metamathematics, between logics and algebras and the algebraic-geometrical foundations of statistical theories (especially in the sciences), have led to striking new insights into the formal and conceptual structure of probability and statistical theory and their scientific applications in the form of scientific theory. The foundations of statistics are in a state of profound conflict. Fisher's objections to some aspects of Neyman-Pearson statistics have long been well known. More recently the emergence of Baysian statistics as a radical alternative to standard views has made the conflict especially acute. In recent years the response of many practising statisticians to the conflict has been an eclectic approach to statistical inference. Many good statisticians have developed a kind of wisdom which enables them to know which problems are most appropriately handled by each of the methods available. The search for principles which would explain why each of the methods works where it does and fails where it does offers a fruitful approach to the controversy over foundations.


Foundations and Philosophy of Epistemic Applications of Probability Theory

Filename: foundations-and-philosophy-of-epistemic-applications-of-probability-theory.pdf
ISBN: 9027706174
Release Date: 1976
Number of pages: 309
Author: William Harper
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

Download and read online Foundations and Philosophy of Epistemic Applications of Probability Theory in PDF and EPUB Proceedings of an International Research Colloquium held at the University of Western Ontario, 10-13 May 1973.


Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik

Filename: mathematische-grundlagen-der-quantenmechanik.pdf
ISBN: 9783642960482
Release Date: 2013-03-13
Number of pages: 150
Author: Johann v. Neumann
Publisher: Springer-Verlag

Download and read online Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik in PDF and EPUB


Paradoxes in Probability Theory

Filename: paradoxes-in-probability-theory.pdf
ISBN: 9789400751408
Release Date: 2012-09-26
Number of pages: 79
Author: William Eckhardt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

Download and read online Paradoxes in Probability Theory in PDF and EPUB Paradoxes provide a vehicle for exposing misinterpretations and misapplications of accepted principles. This book discusses seven paradoxes surrounding probability theory. Some remain the focus of controversy; others have allegedly been solved, however the accepted solutions are demonstrably incorrect. Each paradox is shown to rest on one or more fallacies. Instead of the esoteric, idiosyncratic, and untested methods that have been brought to bear on these problems, the book invokes uncontroversial probability principles, acceptable both to frequentists and subjectivists. The philosophical disputation inspired by these paradoxes is shown to be misguided and unnecessary; for instance, startling claims concerning human destiny and the nature of reality are directly related to fallacious reasoning in a betting paradox, and a problem analyzed in philosophy journals is resolved by means of a computer program.​


Probability Theory

Filename: probability-theory.pdf
ISBN: 0792369521
Release Date: 2001-06-30
Number of pages: 183
Author: Vincent F. Hendricks
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

Download and read online Probability Theory in PDF and EPUB A collection of papers presented at the conference on Probability Theory - Philosophy, Recent History and Relations to Science, University of Roskilde, Denmark, September 16-18, 1998. Since the measure theoretical definition of probability was proposed by Kolmogorov, probability theory has developed into a mature mathematical theory. It is today a fruitful field of mathematics that has important applications in philosophy, science, engineering, and many other areas. The measure theoretical definition of probability and its axioms, however, are not without their problems; some of them even puzzled Kolmogorov. This book sheds light on some recent discussions of the problems in probability theory and their history, analysing their philosophical and mathematical significance, and the role pf mathematical probability theory in other sciences.


Theories of Probability

Filename: theories-of-probability.pdf
ISBN: 9789812708014
Release Date: 2007
Number of pages: 219
Author: Louis Narens
Publisher: World Scientific

Download and read online Theories of Probability in PDF and EPUB Standard probability theory has been an enormously successful contribution to modern science. However, from many perspectives it is too narrow as a general theory of uncertainty, particularly for issues involving subjective uncertainty. This first-of-its-kind book is primarily based on qualitative approaches to probabilistic-like uncertainty, and includes qualitative theories for the standard theory as well as several of its generalizations.One of these generalizations produces a belief function composed of two functions: a probability function that measures the probabilistic strength of an uncertain event, and another function that measures the amount of ambiguity or vagueness of the event. Another unique approach of the book is to change the event space from a boolean algebra, which is closely linked to classical propositional logic, to a different event algebra that is closely linked to a well-studied generalization of classical propositional logic known as intuitionistic logic. Together, these new qualitative theories succeed where the standard probability theory fails by accounting for a number of puzzling empirical findings in the psychology of human probability judgments and decision making.


Rhetorik

Filename: rhetorik.pdf
ISBN: 9783050048864
Release Date: 2002-01-01
Number of pages: 1512
Author:
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

Download and read online Rhetorik in PDF and EPUB In der Abhandlung über Rhetorik entfaltet Aristoteles die Konzeption einer sachorientierten, argumentativen und im Kern an der Dialektik ausgerichteten Redekunst. Rhetorik wird als eine Disziplin begriffen, die nicht auf einen bestimmten Gegenstandsbereich eingeschränkt ist und den Redner in die Lage versetzt, seine Zuhörer mit den Mitteln des argumentativen Beweises zu überzeugen. Das deduktive Argument stellt in der Rhetorik zwar das wichtigste, jedoch nicht das einzige kunstgemäße Überzeugungsmittel dar: Der Redner muß auch fähig sein, sich als glaubwürdig darzustellen und seine Zuhörer in einen geeigneten emotionalen Zustand zu versetzen. Charakterdarstellung und Emotionserregung werden als legitime Formen des Überzeugens untersucht und in den Zusammenhang einer psychologischen, soziologischen und epistemologischen Theorie der Kommunikation eingebettet. Die philosophische Rhetorik nimmt daher eine Mittelstellung ein zwischen der argumentationstheoretisch orientierten Dialektik und der im weiten Sinn politischen Philosophie. Nach der Untersuchung der kunstgemäßen und kunstfremden Überzeugungsmittel in den ersten beiden Büchern wendet sich das dritte Buch der sprachlichen Form, Gestalt und Anordnung der Redeteile zu. Alle Aspekte der Redekunst, von der logischen Tiefenstruktur der Deduktion bis zu Wortwahl und Vortragsweise, werden mit Blick auf das Ziel des Redners analysiert, der Wahrheit mit rhetorischen Mitteln zu ihrem Recht zu verhelfen.


Illustrations of the Logic of Science

Filename: illustrations-of-the-logic-of-science.pdf
ISBN: 9780812698527
Release Date: 2014-05-19
Number of pages: 352
Author: Charles Sanders Peirce
Publisher: Open Court

Download and read online Illustrations of the Logic of Science in PDF and EPUB Charles Peirce’s Illustrations of the Logic of Science is an early work in the philosophy of science and the official birthplace of pragmatism. It contains Peirce’s two most influential papers: “The Fixation of Belief” and “How to Make Our Ideas Clear,” as well as discussions on the theory of probability, the ground of induction, the relation between science and religion, and the logic of abduction. Unsatisfied with the result and driven by a constant, almost feverish urge to improve his work, Peirce spent considerable time and effort revising these papers. After the turn of the century these efforts gained significant momentum when Peirce sought to establish his role in the development of pragmatism while distancing himself from the more popular versions that had become current. The present edition brings together the original series as it appeared in Popular Science Monthly and a selection of Peirce’s later revisions, many of which remained hidden in the mass of messy manuscripts that were left behind after his death in 1914.


Foundations of Probability Theory Statistical Inference and Statistical Theories of Science

Filename: foundations-of-probability-theory-statistical-inference-and-statistical-theories-of-science.pdf
ISBN: 9027706166
Release Date: 1975-12-31
Number of pages: 309
Author: William Harper
Publisher: Springer

Download and read online Foundations of Probability Theory Statistical Inference and Statistical Theories of Science in PDF and EPUB In May of 1973 we organized an international research colloquium on foundations of probability, statistics, and statistical theories of science at the University of Western Ontario. During the past four decades there have been striking formal advances in our understanding of logic, semantics and algebraic structure in probabilistic and statistical theories. These advances, which include the development of the relations between semantics and metamathematics, between logics and algebras and the algebraic-geometrical foundations of statistical theories (especially in the sciences), have led to striking new insights into the formal and conceptual structure of probability and statistical theory and their scientific applications in the form of scientific theory. The foundations of statistics are in a state of profound conflict. Fisher's objections to some aspects of Neyman-Pearson statistics have long been well known. More recently the emergence of Baysian statistics as a radical alternative to standard views has made the conflict especially acute. In recent years the response of many practising statisticians to the conflict has been an eclectic approach to statistical inference. Many good statisticians have developed a kind of wisdom which enables them to know which problems are most appropriately handled by each of the methods available. The search for principles which would explain why each of the methods works where it does and fails where it does offers a fruitful approach to the controversy over foundations.


Realism and the Aim of Science

Filename: realism-and-the-aim-of-science.pdf
ISBN: 9781135858957
Release Date: 2013-04-15
Number of pages: 464
Author: Karl Popper
Publisher: Routledge

Download and read online Realism and the Aim of Science in PDF and EPUB Realism and the Aim of Science is one of the three volumes of Karl Popper’s Postscript to the Logic of scientific Discovery. The Postscript is the culmination of Popper’s work in the philosophy of physics and a new famous attack on subjectivist approaches to philosophy of science. Realism and the Aim of Science is the first volume of the Postcript. Popper here formulates and explains his non-justificationist theory of knowledge: science aims at true explanatory theories, yet it can never prove, or justify, any theory to be true, not even if is a true theory. Science must continue to question and criticise all its theories, even those that happen to be true. Realism and the Aim of Science presents Popper’s mature statement on scientific knowledge and offers important insights into his thinking on problems of method within science.