The Bed of Procrustes

Filename: the-bed-of-procrustes.pdf
ISBN: 9780141969244
Release Date: 2010-12-02
Number of pages: 160
Author: Nassim Nicholas Taleb
Publisher: Penguin UK

Download and read online The Bed of Procrustes in PDF and EPUB In this profound and playful book, Nassim Nicholas Taleb presents his ideas about life in the form of aphorisms, the world's earliest - and most memorable - literary form. Procrustes was a character from Greek mythology who abducted travellers and invited them to spend the night in a special bed, which they had to fit to perfection. They never did. Those who were too tall had their legs chopped off; those who were too short were stretched. Every aphorism here is about a Procrustean bed of sorts - we humans, facing the limits of our knowledge, the unseen and the unknown, resolve the tension by squeezing life and the world into crisp commoditized ideas, reductive categories, specific vocabularies and pre-packaged narratives. Only by embracing the unexpected - and accepting what we don't know - can we see the world as it really is.


The Bed of Procrustes

Filename: the-bed-of-procrustes.pdf
ISBN: 9780679643685
Release Date: 2010-11-30
Number of pages: 176
Author: Nassim Nicholas Taleb
Publisher: Random House

Download and read online The Bed of Procrustes in PDF and EPUB With fifty percent more material than the hardcover, this expanded edition of The Bed of Procrustes is a standalone book in Nassim Nicholas Taleb’s landmark Incerto series, an investigation of opacity, luck, uncertainty, probability, human error, risk, and decision-making in a world we don’t understand. The other books in the series are Fooled by Randomness, The Black Swan, and Antifragile. By the author of the modern classic The Black Swan, this collection of aphorisms and meditations expresses his major ideas in ways you least expect. The Bed of Procrustes takes its title from Greek mythology: the story of a man who made his visitors fit his bed to perfection by either stretching them or cutting their limbs. It represents Taleb’s view of modern civilization’s hubristic side effects—modifying humans to satisfy technology, blaming reality for not fitting economic models, inventing diseases to sell drugs, defining intelligence as what can be tested in a classroom, and convincing people that employment is not slavery. Playful and irreverent, these aphorisms will surprise you by exposing self-delusions you have been living with but never recognized. With a rare combination of pointed wit and potent wisdom, Taleb plows through human illusions, contrasting the classical values of courage, elegance, and erudition against the modern diseases of nerdiness, philistinism, and phoniness. “Taleb’s crystalline nuggets of thought stand alone like esoteric poems.”—Financial Times From the Trade Paperback edition.


The Bed of Procrustes

Filename: the-bed-of-procrustes.pdf
ISBN: 9780241954096
Release Date: 2010-12-02
Number of pages: 128
Author: Nassim Nicholas Taleb
Publisher: Penguin UK

Download and read online The Bed of Procrustes in PDF and EPUB In this profound and playful book, Nassim Nicholas Taleb presents his ideas about life in the form of aphorisms, the world’s earliest - and most memorable - literary form. Procrustes was a character from Greek mythology who abducted travellers and invited them to spend the night in a special bed, which they had to fit to perfection. They never did. Those who were too tall had their legs chopped off; those who were too short were stretched. Every aphorism here is about a Procrustean bed of sorts – we humans, facing the limits of our knowledge, the unseen and the unknown, resolve the tension by squeezing life and the world into crisp commoditized ideas, reductive categories, specific vocabularies and pre-packaged narratives. Only by embracing the unexpected – and accepting what we don’t know – can we see the world as it really is.


Incerto

Filename: incerto.pdf
ISBN: 9780399590450
Release Date: 2016-11-08
Number of pages: 1568
Author: Nassim Nicholas Taleb
Publisher: Random House Trade Paperbacks

Download and read online Incerto in PDF and EPUB Nassim Nicholas Taleb's landmark Incerto series is an investigation of luck, uncertainty, probability, opacity, human error, risk, disorder, and decision-making in a world we don't understand, in nonoverlapping and standalone books. All four volumes--Antifragile, The Black Swan, Fooled by Randomness, and the expanded edition of The Bed of Procrustes, updated with more than 50 percent new material--are now together in one boxed set. ANTIFRAGILE "Startling . . . richly crammed with insights, stories, fine phrases and intriguing asides."--The Wall Street Journal Just as human bones get stronger when subjected to stress and tension, many things in life benefit from disorder, volatility, and turmoil. What Taleb has identified and calls "antifragile" is that category of things that not only gain from chaos but need it in order to survive and flourish. The resilient resists shocks and stays the same; the antifragile gets better and better. What is crucial is that the antifragile loves errors, as it incurs small harm and large benefits from them. Spanning politics, urban planning, war, personal finance, economic systems, and medicine in an interdisciplinary and erudite style, Antifragile is a blueprint for living in a Black Swan world. THE BLACK SWAN "[A book] that altered modern thinking."--The Times (London) A black swan is a highly improbable event with three principal characteristics: It is unpredictab≤ it carries a massive impact; and, after the fact, we concoct an explanation that makes it appear less random and more predictable. The astonishing success of Google was a black swan; so was 9/11. In this groundbreaking and prophetic book, Taleb shows that black swan events underlie almost everything about our world, from the rise of religions to events in our own personal lives, and yet we--especially the experts--are blind to them. FOOLED BY RANDOMNESS "[Fooled by Randomness] is to conventional Wall Street wisdom approximately what Martin Luther's ninety-five theses were to the Catholic Church."--Malcolm Gladwell, The New Yorker Are we capable of distinguishing the fortunate charlatan from the genuine visionary? Must we always try to uncover nonexistent messages in random events? Fooled by Randomness is about luck: more precisely, about how we perceive luck in our personal and professional experiences. Set against the backdrop of the most conspicuous forum in which luck is mistaken for skill--the markets--Fooled by Randomness is an irreverent, eye-opening, and endlessly entertaining exploration of one of the least understood forces in our lives. THE BED OF PROCRUSTES "Taleb's crystalline nuggets of thought stand alone like esoteric poems."--Financial Times This collection of aphorisms and meditations expresses Taleb's major ideas in ways you least expect. The Bed of Procrustes takes its title from Greek mythology: the story of a man who made his visitors fit his bed to perfection by either stretching them or cutting their limbs. With a rare combination of pointed wit and potent wisdom, Taleb plows through human illusions, contrasting the classical views of courage, elegance, and erudition against the modern diseases of nerdiness, philistinism, and phoniness.


Fooled by Randomness

Filename: fooled-by-randomness.pdf
ISBN: 1588367673
Release Date: 2008-10-14
Number of pages: 368
Author: Nassim Nicholas Taleb
Publisher: Random House

Download and read online Fooled by Randomness in PDF and EPUB Fooled by Randomness is a standalone book in Nassim Nicholas Taleb’s landmark Incerto series, an investigation of opacity, luck, uncertainty, probability, human error, risk, and decision-making in a world we don’t understand. The other books in the series are The Black Swan, Antifragile, and The Bed of Procrustes. “[Taleb is] Wall Street’s principal dissident. . . . [Fooled By Randomness] is to conventional Wall Street wisdom approximately what Martin Luther’s ninety-nine theses were to the Catholic Church.” –Malcolm Gladwell, The New Yorker Finally in paperback, the word-of-mouth sensation that will change the way you think about the markets and the world.This book is about luck: more precisely how we perceive luck in our personal and professional experiences. Set against the backdrop of the most conspicuous forum in which luck is mistaken for skill–the world of business–Fooled by Randomness is an irreverent, iconoclastic, eye-opening, and endlessly entertaining exploration of one of the least understood forces in all of our lives. From the Trade Paperback edition.


Incerto 4 Book Bundle

Filename: incerto-4-book-bundle.pdf
ISBN: 9780812997699
Release Date: 2016-01-26
Number of pages: 1568
Author: Nassim Nicholas Taleb
Publisher: Random House

Download and read online Incerto 4 Book Bundle in PDF and EPUB Nassim Nicholas Taleb’s landmark Incerto series is an investigation of luck, uncertainty, probability, opacity, human error, risk, disorder, and decision-making in a world we don’t understand, in nonoverlapping and standalone books. All four volumes—Antifragile, The Black Swan, Fooled by Randomness, and the expanded edition of The Bed of Procrustes, updated with more than 50 percent new material—are now together in one ebook bundle. ANTIFRAGILE “Startling . . . richly crammed with insights, stories, fine phrases and intriguing asides.”—The Wall Street Journal Just as human bones get stronger when subjected to stress and tension, many things in life benefit from disorder, volatility, and turmoil. What Taleb has identified and calls “antifragile” is that category of things that not only gain from chaos but need it in order to survive and flourish. The resilient resists shocks and stays the same; the antifragile gets better and better. What is crucial is that the antifragile loves errors, as it incurs small harm and large benefits from them. Spanning politics, urban planning, war, personal finance, economic systems, and medicine in an interdisciplinary and erudite style, Antifragile is a blueprint for living in a Black Swan world. THE BLACK SWAN “[A book] that altered modern thinking.”—The Times (London) A black swan is a highly improbable event with three principal characteristics: It is unpredictable; it carries a massive impact; and, after the fact, we concoct an explanation that makes it appear less random and more predictable. The astonishing success of Google was a black swan; so was 9/11. In this groundbreaking and prophetic book, Taleb shows that black swan events underlie almost everything about our world, from the rise of religions to events in our own personal lives, and yet we—especially the experts—are blind to them. FOOLED BY RANDOMNESS “[Fooled by Randomness] is to conventional Wall Street wisdom approximately what Martin Luther’s ninety-five theses were to the Catholic Church.”—Malcolm Gladwell, The New Yorker Are we capable of distinguishing the fortunate charlatan from the genuine visionary? Must we always try to uncover nonexistent messages in random events? Fooled by Randomness is about luck: more precisely, about how we perceive luck in our personal and professional experiences. Set against the backdrop of the most conspicuous forum in which luck is mistaken for skill—the markets—Fooled by Randomness is an irreverent, eye-opening, and endlessly entertaining exploration of one of the least understood forces in our lives. THE BED OF PROCRUSTES “Taleb’s crystalline nuggets of thought stand alone like esoteric poems.”—Financial Times This collection of aphorisms and meditations expresses Taleb’s major ideas in ways you least expect. The Bed of Procrustes takes its title from Greek mythology: the story of a man who made his visitors fit his bed to perfection by either stretching them or cutting their limbs. With a rare combination of pointed wit and potent wisdom, Taleb plows through human illusions, contrasting the classical views of courage, elegance, and erudition against the modern diseases of nerdiness, philistinism, and phoniness.


The Digested Read

Filename: the-digested-read.pdf
ISBN: 1571431594
Release Date: 2006
Number of pages: 288
Author: John Crace
Publisher: RDR Books

Download and read online The Digested Read in PDF and EPUB Literary ombudsman John Crace never met an important book he didnt like to deconstruct.From Salman Rushdie to John Grisham, Crace retells the big books in just 500 bitingly satirical words, pointing his pen at the clunky plots, stylistic tics and pretensions to Big Ideas, as he turns publishers golden dream books into dross. In the grand tradition of Tom Lehrer and Stan Freberg, Crace takes the books that produce the most media hype and retells each story in its authors inimitable style. Philip Roth, Don Delillo, Margaret Drabble, Paul Auster, Alice Sebold, John Updike, Tom Wolfe, Ruth Rendell, A.S. Byatt, John LeCarre, Michael Crichton and Ian McEwan all emerge delightfully scathed in this book that makes it easy to talk knowingly about books youve never bothered to read or, for that matter, should have.


Antifragile

Filename: antifragile.pdf
ISBN: 9780679645276
Release Date: 2012-11-27
Number of pages: 544
Author: Nassim Nicholas Taleb
Publisher: Random House

Download and read online Antifragile in PDF and EPUB Antifragile is a standalone book in Nassim Nicholas Taleb’s landmark Incerto series, an investigation of opacity, luck, uncertainty, probability, human error, risk, and decision-making in a world we don’t understand. The other books in the series are Fooled by Randomness, The Black Swan, and The Bed of Procrustes. Nassim Nicholas Taleb, the bestselling author of The Black Swan and one of the foremost thinkers of our time, reveals how to thrive in an uncertain world. Just as human bones get stronger when subjected to stress and tension, and rumors or riots intensify when someone tries to repress them, many things in life benefit from stress, disorder, volatility, and turmoil. What Taleb has identified and calls “antifragile” is that category of things that not only gain from chaos but need it in order to survive and flourish. In The Black Swan, Taleb showed us that highly improbable and unpredictable events underlie almost everything about our world. In Antifragile, Taleb stands uncertainty on its head, making it desirable, even necessary, and proposes that things be built in an antifragile manner. The antifragile is beyond the resilient or robust. The resilient resists shocks and stays the same; the antifragile gets better and better. Furthermore, the antifragile is immune to prediction errors and protected from adverse events. Why is the city-state better than the nation-state, why is debt bad for you, and why is what we call “efficient” not efficient at all? Why do government responses and social policies protect the strong and hurt the weak? Why should you write your resignation letter before even starting on the job? How did the sinking of the Titanic save lives? The book spans innovation by trial and error, life decisions, politics, urban planning, war, personal finance, economic systems, and medicine. And throughout, in addition to the street wisdom of Fat Tony of Brooklyn, the voices and recipes of ancient wisdom, from Roman, Greek, Semitic, and medieval sources, are loud and clear. Antifragile is a blueprint for living in a Black Swan world. Erudite, witty, and iconoclastic, Taleb’s message is revolutionary: The antifragile, and only the antifragile, will make it. Praise for Antifragile “Ambitious and thought-provoking . . . highly entertaining.”—The Economist “A bold book explaining how and why we should embrace uncertainty, randomness, and error . . . It may just change our lives.”—Newsweek “Revelatory . . . [Taleb] pulls the reader along with the logic of a Socrates.”—Chicago Tribune “Startling . . . richly crammed with insights, stories, fine phrases and intriguing asides . . . I will have to read it again. And again.”—Matt Ridley, The Wall Street Journal “Trenchant and persuasive . . . Taleb’s insatiable polymathic curiosity knows no bounds. . . . You finish the book feeling braver and uplifted.”—New Statesman “Antifragility isn’t just sound economic and political doctrine. It’s also the key to a good life.”—Fortune “At once thought-provoking and brilliant.”—Los Angeles Times From the Hardcover edition.


The Black Swan Second Edition

Filename: the-black-swan-second-edition.pdf
ISBN: 0679604189
Release Date: 2010-05-11
Number of pages: 480
Author: Nassim Nicholas Taleb
Publisher: Random House

Download and read online The Black Swan Second Edition in PDF and EPUB The Black Swan is a standalone book in Nassim Nicholas Taleb’s landmark Incerto series, an investigation of opacity, luck, uncertainty, probability, human error, risk, and decision-making in a world we don’t understand. The other books in the series are Fooled by Randomness, Antifragile, and The Bed of Procrustes. A black swan is a highly improbable event with three principal characteristics: It is unpredictable; it carries a massive impact; and, after the fact, we concoct an explanation that makes it appear less random, and more predictable, than it was. The astonishing success of Google was a black swan; so was 9/11. For Nassim Nicholas Taleb, black swans underlie almost everything about our world, from the rise of religions to events in our own personal lives. Why do we not acknowledge the phenomenon of black swans until after they occur? Part of the answer, according to Taleb, is that humans are hardwired to learn specifics when they should be focused on generalities. We concentrate on things we already know and time and time again fail to take into consideration what we don’t know. We are, therefore, unable to truly estimate opportunities, too vulnerable to the impulse to simplify, narrate, and categorize, and not open enough to rewarding those who can imagine the “impossible.” For years, Taleb has studied how we fool ourselves into thinking we know more than we actually do. We restrict our thinking to the irrelevant and inconsequential, while large events continue to surprise us and shape our world. In this revelatory book, Taleb explains everything we know about what we don’t know, and this second edition features a new philosophical and empirical essay, “On Robustness and Fragility,” which offers tools to navigate and exploit a Black Swan world. Elegant, startling, and universal in its applications, The Black Swan will change the way you look at the world. Taleb is a vastly entertaining writer, with wit, irreverence, and unusual stories to tell. He has a polymathic command of subjects ranging from cognitive science to business to probability theory. The Black Swan is a landmark book—itself a black swan. Praise for Nassim Nicholas Taleb “The most prophetic voice of all.”—GQ Praise for The Black Swan “[A book] that altered modern thinking.”—The Times (London) “A masterpiece.”—Chris Anderson, editor in chief of Wired, author of The Long Tail “Idiosyncratically brilliant.”—Niall Ferguson, Los Angeles Times “The Black Swan changed my view of how the world works.”—Daniel Kahneman, Nobel laureate “[Taleb writes] in a style that owes as much to Stephen Colbert as it does to Michel de Montaigne. . . . We eagerly romp with him through the follies of confirmation bias [and] narrative fallacy.”—The Wall Street Journal “Hugely enjoyable—compelling . . . easy to dip into.”—Financial Times “Engaging . . . The Black Swan has appealing cheek and admirable ambition.”—The New York Times Book Review From the Hardcover edition.


Dynamic Hedging

Filename: dynamic-hedging.pdf
ISBN: 0471152803
Release Date: 1997-01-14
Number of pages: 506
Author: Nassim Taleb
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

Download and read online Dynamic Hedging in PDF and EPUB Dynamic Hedging is the definitive source on derivatives risk. Itprovides a real–world methodology for managing portfolioscontaining any nonlinear security. It presents risks from thevantage point of the option market maker and arbitrage operator.The only book about derivatives risk written by an experiencedtrader with theoretical training, it remolds option theory to fitthe practitioner′s environment. As a larger share of marketexposure cannot be properly captured by mathematical models, notedoption arbitrageur Nassim Taleb uniquely covers both on–model andoff–model derivatives risks. The author discusses, in plain English, vital issues,including: The generalized option, which encompasses all instruments withconvex payoff, including a trader′s potential bonus. The techniques for trading exotic options, including binary,barrier, multiasset, and Asian options, as well as methods to takeinto account the wrinkles of actual, non–bellshapeddistributions. Market dynamics viewed from the practitioner′s vantage point,including liquidity holes, portfolio insurance, squeezes, fattails, volatility surface, GARCH, curve evolution, static optionreplication, correlation instability, Pareto–Levy, regime shifts,autocorrelation of price changes, and the severe flaws in the valueat risk method. New tools to detect risks, such as higher moment analysis,topography exposure, and nonparametric techniques. The path dependence of all options hedged dynamically. Dynamic Hedging is replete with helpful tools, market anecdotes,at–a–glance risk management rules distilling years of market lore,and important definitions. The book contains modules in which thefundamental mathematics of derivatives, such as the Brownianmotion, Ito′s lemma, the numeraire paradox, the Girsanov change ofmeasure, and the Feynman–Kac solution are presented in intuitivepractitioner′s language. Dynamic Hedging is an indispensable and definitive reference formarket makers, academics, finance students, risk managers, andregulators. The definitive book on options trading and risk management "If pricing is a science and hedging is an art, Taleb is avirtuoso." –Bruno Dupire, Head of Swaps and Options Research,Paribas Capital Markets "This is not merely the best book on how options trade, it isthe only book." –Stan Jonas, Managing Director, FIMAT–SocietyGARCH "Dynamic Hedging bridges the gap between what the besttraders know and what the best scholars can prove." –WilliamMargrabe, President, The William Margrabe Group, Inc. "The most comprehensive, insightful, intuitive work on thesubject. It is instrumental for both beginning and experiencedtraders."– "A tour de force. That rare find, a book of great practical andtheoretical value. Taleb successfully bridges the gap between theacademic and the real world. Interesting, provocative, wellwritten. Each chapter worth a fortune to any current or prospectivederivatives trader."–Victor Niederhoffer, Chairman, NiederhofferInvestments


Procrustes Problems

Filename: procrustes-problems.pdf
ISBN: 9780198510581
Release Date: 2004-01-22
Number of pages: 233
Author: John C Gower
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

Download and read online Procrustes Problems in PDF and EPUB Procrustean methods are used to transform one set of data to represent another set of data as closely as possible. This text is a systematic overview of Procrustean methods, presenting a unifying Analysis of Variance framework for different matching methods and the development of statistical tests.


In Bed with Procrustes

Filename: in-bed-with-procrustes.pdf
ISBN: UCSC:32106017439495
Release Date: 2003
Number of pages: 290
Author: Patricia J. Thompson
Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Incorporated

Download and read online In Bed with Procrustes in PDF and EPUB <I>In Bed with Procrustes: Feminism's Flirtation with Patriarchy is the second volume in a -Hestia Trilogy-. It continues Professor Thompson's exploration of the Hestian/Hermean Dual Systems Paradigm, introduced in <I>The Accidental Theorist: The Double Helix of Everyday Life. Drawing on two ancient Greek mythemes - Hestia, guardian of the -homeplace- and Hermes, guardian of the -marketplace- - she introduces a metaphorical language with which to examine the private/public, civic/domestic, familial/political aspects of the human condition to reclaim the family ecosystem as a site for feminist theory. She challenges -one size fits all- theories based on patriarchal paradigms (the -bed of Procrustes-) and suggests how a Hestian feminist perspective can be applied to the academic disciplines of classics, philosophy, history, political science, sociology, psychology, economics, and ethics."


At Large and At Small

Filename: at-large-and-at-small.pdf
ISBN: 9781429922968
Release Date: 2008-05-27
Number of pages: 240
Author: Anne Fadiman
Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Download and read online At Large and At Small in PDF and EPUB In At Large and At Small, Anne Fadiman returns to one of her favorite genres, the familiar essay—a beloved and hallowed literary tradition recognized for both its intellectual breadth and its miniaturist focus on everyday experiences. With the combination of humor and erudition that has distinguished her as one of our finest essayists, Fadiman draws us into twelve of her personal obsessions: from her slightly sinister childhood enthusiasm for catching butterflies to her monumental crush on Charles Lamb, from her wistfulness for the days of letter-writing to the challenges and rewards of moving from the city to the country. Many of these essays were composed "under the influence" of the subject at hand. Fadiman ingests a shocking amount of ice cream and divulges her passion for Häagen-Dazs Chocolate Chocolate Chip and her brother's homemade Liquid Nitrogen Kahlúa Coffee (recipe included); she sustains a terrific caffeine buzz while recounting Balzac's coffee addiction; and she stays up till dawn to write about being a night owl, examining the rhythms of our circadian clocks and sharing such insomnia cures as her father's nocturnal word games and Lewis Carroll's mathematical puzzles. At Large and At Small is a brilliant and delightful collection of essays that harkens a revival of a long-cherished genre.


The Black Swan

Filename: the-black-swan.pdf
ISBN: 1846140455
Release Date: 2007
Number of pages: 366
Author: Nassim Nicholas Taleb
Publisher: Allen Lane

Download and read online The Black Swan in PDF and EPUB Elegant, startling, and universal in its applications, The Black Swan is a concept that will change the way you look at the world. Black Swans underlie almost everything, from the rise of religions, to events in our own personal lives. A Black Swan is a highly improbable event with three principle characteristics: it is unpredictable; it carries a massive impact; and, after the fact, we concoct an explanation that makes it appear less random and more predictable than it was. The astonishing success of Google was a black swan; so was 9/11. And why do we always ignore the phenomenon of Black Swans until after they occur? As Nassim Nicholas Taleb reveals, we are hard-wired not to truly estimate risk, too vulnerable to the impulse to simplify, narrate, and categorize and not open enough to rewarding those who can imagine the 'impossible'. In this revelatory book, Taleb explains everything we know about what we don't know, and shows us how to face the world.


Selecting Europe s Judges

Filename: selecting-europe-s-judges.pdf
ISBN: 9780198727781
Release Date: 2015
Number of pages: 323
Author: Michal Bobek
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

Download and read online Selecting Europe s Judges in PDF and EPUB The past decade has witnessed change in the ways judges for the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights are selected. The leitmotif has been securing greater professional quality of the judicial candidates, and, for this purpose, both European systems have put in place various advisory panels or selection committees that are called to evaluate the aptitude of the candidates put forward by the national governments. Are these institutional reforms successful in guaranteeing greater quality of the judicial candidates? Do they increase the legitimacy of the European courts? Has the creation of these advisory panels in any way altered the institutional balance, either horizontally within the international organizations, or vertically, between the respective organization and its Member States? Above all, has the spree of 'judicial comitology' as currently practiced a good way for selecting Europe's judges? These and a number of other questions are addressed in this topical volume in a comparative and interdisciplinary prospective. The book is structured into two elements: first, how the operation of the new selection mechanisms is captured and analyzed from different vantage points, and secondly, having mapped the ground, the book critically and comparatively engages with selected common themes, examining the new mechanisms with respect to values and principles such as democracy, judicial independence, transparency, representativeness, and legitimacy.